Divergence Population Genetics of Chimpanzees

Department of Genetics, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.
Molecular Biology and Evolution (Impact Factor: 14.31). 03/2005; 22(2):297-307. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msi017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The divergence of two subspecies of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes and P. t. verus) and the bonobo (P. paniscus) was studied using a recently developed method for analyzing population divergence. Under the isolation with migration model, the posterior probability distributions of divergence time, migration rates, and effective population sizes were estimated for large multilocus DNA sequence data sets drawn from the literature. The bonobo and the common chimpanzee are estimated to have diverged approximately 0.86 to 0.89 MYA, and the divergence of the two common chimpanzee subspecies is estimated to have occurred 0.42 MYA. P. t. troglodytes appears to have had a larger effective population size (22,400 to 27,900) compared with P. paniscus, P. t. verus, and the ancestral populations of these species. No evidence of gene flow was found in the comparisons involving P. paniscus; however a clear signal of unidirectional gene flow was found from P. t. verus to P. t. troglodytes (2Nm = 0.51).

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Available from: Yong-Jin Won, Aug 30, 2015
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    • "The genes flow between species may accelerate adaptation, facilitate ecological diversity, as well as drive speciation processes. In primates, hybridization has been reported mainly between subspecies and species, but has also been detected between genera [Detwiler et al., 2005; Dunbar & Dunbar, 1974; Won & Hey, 2005]. In the past, most of the reported hybridization in primates were ongoing events, which were evaluated by the approaches of field observation [Bynum et al., 1997; Dunbar & Dunbar, 1974; Nagel, 1973]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic position of the genus Semnopithecusis unresolved because of topological incongruence when inferred using different molecular markers. Although some studies proposed hybridization between the genera Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus to explain the discordance, no conclusive evidence for hybridization has been identified. To address this issue, we used DNA walking and long-range PCR to describe a nuclear mitochondrial DNA (Numt) segment present in Trachypithecus pileatus which extends over more than 15 kb, and represents approximately 92% of the entire mitochondrial genome. We assessed the presence of this Numt in 16 other colobine species, including four species of the genus Trachypithecus, six species of the genus Semnopithecus, and representative species of six other genera belonging to the subfamily Colobinae. We failed to detect a Numt sequence in any of the other colobine species except for T. shortridgei, which is closely related to T. pileatus. The sister relationship of this Numt within the genus Semnopithecus suggests that it was derived from the mt genome of the genus Semnopithecus and invaded the nuclear genome of T. pileatus by unidirectional introgression hybridization. These results offer the most conclusive evidence for the existence of hybridization between Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Primatology 04/2015; 77(8). DOI:10.1002/ajp.22419 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the closest evolutionary relatives to humans. Although humans split from the genus Pan 5–7 million years ago, bonobos and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor as recently as 1–2 million years ago (Fischer et al., 2004; Won & Hey, 2005). The vast majority of cognitive and behavioral studies in captivity have been done with chimpanzees, with relatively little information on the bonobo, likely due to the greater availability of chimpanzees compared to bonobos. "
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    ABSTRACT: The evolutionary origins of human right-handedness remain poorly understood. Some have hypothesized that tool use served as an important preadaptation for the eventual evolution of population-level right-handedness. In contrast, others have suggested that complex gestural and vocal communication served as prerequisite for the evolution of human right-handedness. In this study, we tested these competing hypotheses by comparing the handedness of bonobos and chimpanzees, two closely related species of Pan, on three different measures of hand use including simple reaching, manual gestures and coordinated bimanual actions. Chimpanzees are well known for their tool using abilities whereas bonobos rarely use tools in the wild. In contrast, many have suggested that bonobos have a more flexible gestural and vocal communication system than chimpanzees. The overall results showed that chimpanzees were significantly more right-handed than bonobos for all three measures suggesting that adaptations for tool use rather than communication may have led to the emergence of human right-handedness. We further show that species differences in handedness may be linked to variation in the size and asymmetry of the motor-hand area of the precentral gyrus. The results are discussed within the context of evolutionary theories of handedness, as well as some limitations in the approach to handedness measurement in nonhuman primates.
    Behaviour 02/2015; 152(3-4):461-492. DOI:10.1163/1568539X-00003204 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    • "For all loci, the HKY substitution model was implemented. The estimated parameters were obtained by averaging over three independent IM runs (different seed numbers ) and converted into demographic parameters by using the following equations: effective population size: N = h/(4 Á u) and time since divergence in years: t = t/u (Hey, 2005; Won and Hey, 2005; Nielsen and Wakeley, 2001) with u being an estimate of the substitution rate of the first part (647 bp) of the mitochondrial COI gene, which equals 1.9 Â 10 À5 substitutions/locus/year (De Busschere et al., 2010). This substitution rate, and consequently estimates of the population sizes and divergence times, should however be interpreted as a rough estimate for this radiation (De Busschere et al., 2010). "
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