Growth Patterns and the Risk of Breast Cancer in Women
ABSTRACT Adult height and body-mass index influence the risk of breast cancer in women. Whether these associations reflect growth patterns of the fetus or growth during childhood and adolescence is unknown.
We investigated the association between growth during childhood and the risk of breast cancer in a cohort of 117,415 Danish women. Birth weight, age at menarche, and annual measurements of height and weight were obtained from school health records. We used the data to model individual growth curves. Information on vital status, age at first childbirth, parity, and diagnosis of breast cancer was obtained through linkages to national registries.
During 3,333,359 person-years of follow-up, 3340 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. High birth weight, high stature at 14 years of age, low body-mass index (BMI) at 14 years of age, and peak growth at an early age were independent risk factors for breast cancer. Height at 8 years of age and the increase in height during puberty (8 to 14 years of age) were also associated with breast cancer. The attributable risks of birth weight, height at 14 years of age, BMI at 14 years of age, and age at peak growth were 7 percent, 15 percent, 15 percent, and 9 percent, respectively. No effect of adjusting for age at menarche, age at first childbirth, and parity was observed.
Birth weight and growth during childhood and adolescence influence the risk of breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Early life exposures during times of rapid growth and development are recognized increasingly to impact later life. Epidemiologic studies document an association between exposures at critical windows of susceptibility with outcomes as diverse as childhood and adult obesity, timing of menarche, and risk for hypertension or breast cancer. This article briefly reviews the concept of windows of susceptibility for providers who care for adolescent patients. The theoretical bases for windows of susceptibility is examined, evaluating the relationship between pubertal change and breast cancer as a paradigm, and reviewing the underlying mechanisms, such as epigenetic modification. The long-term sequela of responses to early exposures may impact other adult morbidities; addressing these exposures represents an important challenge for contemporary medicine.Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2013; 52(5 Suppl):S15-20. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.019 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well established that exposures during childhood and adolescence affect breast cancer risk much later in life. Recently, studies have begun to evaluate whether early life exposures might also impact the risk of developing benign breast disease (BBD). A diagnosis of proliferative BBD independent of other breast cancer risk factors also increases the subsequent risk of breast cancer; therefore, understanding how to decrease the incidence of BBD may have important implications for primary breast cancer prevention. We reviewed several studies from prospective cohort studies that have investigated the relationship between risk factors during childhood and adolescence, such as anthropometric and reproductive characteristics as well as diet and other behaviors, and subsequent risk of BBD. Higher intake of vegetable oils, nuts, vitamin E, and fiber and lower consumption of animal fat, red meat, and alcohol are associated with reduced risk of BBD. Childhood weight and adolescent body mass index are inversely associated with BBD risk, whereas a greater peak height velocity during adolescence is associated with a higher risk of BBD. There was no association between age of menarche and risk of BBD. Early life exposures and behaviors appear to impact BBD risk. The current body of evidence further supports the importance of a life-course approach to breast cancer prevention.Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2013; 52(5 Suppl):S36-40. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.007 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from the capital city of Denmark. Additional information on the cohort members has been obtained via linkages with population studies and national registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: Studies using data from the register have made important contributions in the areas of the aetiology of obesity, the development of the obesity epidemic, and the long-term health consequences of birth weight as well as body size and growth in childhood. CONCLUSION: Research using this unique register is ongoing, and its contributions to the study of obesity as well as other topics will continue for years to come.Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 07/2011; 39(7 Suppl):196-200. DOI:10.1177/1403494811399955 · 3.13 Impact Factor