Computational roles for dopamine in behavioral control

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 11/2004; 431(7010):760-7. DOI: 10.1038/nature03015
Source: PubMed


Neuromodulators such as dopamine have a central role in cognitive disorders. In the past decade, biological findings on dopamine function have been infused with concepts taken from computational theories of reinforcement learning. These more abstract approaches have now been applied to describe the biological algorithms at play in our brains when we form value judgements and make choices. The application of such quantitative models has opened up new fields, ripe for attack by young synthesizers and theoreticians.

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    • "This approach is used in many operant learning paradigms, such as probabilistic response (or Go/NoGo) learning (Frank and O'Reilly 2006; Holroyd et al. 2004; Pessiglione et al. 2006), probabilistic stimulus selection (PSS; Frank et al. 2004; Shanks et al. 2002), and probabilistic reversal learning (Cools et al. 2002). Learning, in the context of such paradigms, is driven by mismatches between expected and obtained outcomes, called reward prediction errors (RPEs; Glimcher 2011; Montague et al. 2004). Choices that lead to better-than-expected outcomes, or positive RPEs, facilitate those choices in those contexts—a process called " Go-learning " (Frank et al. 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Motivational deficits (avolition and anhedonia ) have historically been considered important negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ). Numerous studies have attempted to identify the neural substrates of avolition and anhedonia in schizophrenia , but these studies have not produced much agreement. Deficits in various aspects of reinforcement processing have been observed in individuals with schizophrenia, but it is not exactly clear which of these deficits actually engender motivational impairments in SZ. The purpose of this chapter is to examine how various reinforcement-related behavioral and neural signals could contribute to motivational impairments in both schizophrenia and psychiatric illness, in general. In particular, we describe different aspects of the concept of expected value (EV) , such as the distinction between the EV of stimuli and the expected value of actions, the acquisition of value versus the estimation of value, and the discounting of value as a consequence of time or effort required. We conclude that avolition and anhedonia in SZ are most commonly tied to aberrant signals for expected value, in the context of learning. We discuss implications for further research on the neural substrates of motivational impairments in psychiatric illness.
    Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/7854_2015_385
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    • "Reward dependencies have been found in both parts of the cortex [56]. In the case of the prefrontal cortex, it has been explicitly hypothesized that rewardprediction errors, encoded by dopamine, trigger changes of goal-representation ( " Dopamine gating hypothesis " [24]). This would indeed imply that at least prefrontal goal representations are formed out of a reward based learning signal as argued in [16], [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Goals are concepts used in many different areas of robotics, artificial intelligence, psychology, neuroscience, and also philosophy. Despite the wide usage, there is no common definition of a "goal". Rather, the term is used in substantially different ways even within disciplines. This paper discusses these notions and potentially unified views on goals, and points out how different perspectives on the same term lead to different arguments and can cause communication difficulties in the inter-disciplinary community. We discuss how far goal terminologies can be generally considered as desired end states of action and point out the pivotal aspect of their explicit representation. As a major point we discuss the relation of such goals with reward and value systems from various perspectives.
    Int. Conf. Development and Learning and on Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob); 08/2015
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    • "For instance, drugs directly affect levels of synaptic dopamine as opposed to affecting them only indirectly via the normal neural processes sub-serving learning and reward. Alongside other processes, such as incentive-sensitization, this may explain why drug cues become unusually salient and cause unusually strong motivations to use (Redish et al. 2008; Montague et al. 2004; Berridge and Robinson 2008). However, like most mental disorders, Hanna Pickard and Serge H. Ahmed How do you know you have a drug problem? "
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    DESCRIPTION: Forthcoming in Addiction and Choice, N. Heather and G. Segal (Eds.) OUP
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