IVIG in APS pregnancy.
ABSTRACT For more than two decades, the intravenous administration of high doses of IgG pooled from the plasma of healthy donors (immune globulin therapy, also known as 'IVIG') has benefited patients with a variety of autoimmune disorders. A potential therapeutic role of IVIG in the prevention of thrombosis and of miscarriages in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been postulated. Multicenter randomized controlled trials attempted to define the role of IVIG in preventing pregnancy complications in APS indicate that simple anticoagulation could not be completely satisfactory, and certain patient subgroups might take advantage of IVIG therapy alone or in combination with heparin.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in obstetrics, information on its pharmacokinetics and optimal dosing during each trimester pregnancy is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize IVIG pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with a history of idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage or obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome and to make dosing recommendations by comparing serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations in women receiving IVIG to placebo controls, before and during pregnancy. Women enrolled in an IVIG trial for idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage (n = 25) or an IVIG study for obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome (n = 10); 22 received IVIG 0.5-1.0 g/kg and 13 received the equivalent volume of saline, every 4 weeks from pre-pregnancy until 18-20 weeks of gestation, with dosing adjusted for her weight prior to each infusion. Serum IgG concentrations were measured by rate nephelometry before and 0.5 h, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following an infusion. Sampling was performed pre-pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters. Area under the curve (AUC) did not differ significantly within the IVIG group between the three sampling periods. Estimated contributions of IVIG [calculated as mean AUC (IVIG group) minus mean AUC (control group)] were 4890.8 g h/l pre-pregnancy, 5591.4 g h/l first trimester and 4755.1 g h/l second trimester (P> 0.05, non-significant). For the IVIG 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg subgroups, the overall estimated contribution of exogenous IVIG was ~4000 and ~6400 g h/l, respectively. With a weight-adjusted dosage of IVIG, drug exposure, based on AUC calculations, was maintained at the pre-pregnancy level. Therefore, we recommend a weight-adjusted dosage of IVIG during the first and second trimesters.Human Reproduction 09/2011; 26(9):2283-8. · 4.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are heterogeneous conditions that have been frequently explained with an immunological pathomechanism. A deeper insight into apparently unexplained infertility and RSA shows increasing evidences supporting both alloimmune and autoimmune mechanisms, in which natural killer (NK) cells and autoantibodies seem to play a relevant role. Successful pregnancy is considered as Th1-Th2 cooperation phenomenon, with a predominantly Th2-type lymphocytes response, together with the emerging role of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, and IL-18 and of other unidentified soluble factors dependent on NK cells. Uterine NK cells comprise the largest population at implantation site, and their activity, characteristics, and abundance suggest that they participate at the "decidualization" process that, vice versa, induces NK activation and recruitment in each menstrual cycle. However, NK cell alteration may be associated with impaired pregnancy, and the modulation in the number of circulating NK cells is most likely to be a primary event rather than an active inflammation/drug administration consequence during an inflammatory/autoimmune process, thus playing an important role in the pathogenesis of immunological infertility. Relationships within immunological infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, autoantibodies, and NK cells will be reviewed herein.Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 11/2009; 39(3):166-75. · 5.59 Impact Factor
- 04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0526-8