Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to preterm infants through breast milk.
ABSTRACT To determine a potential source of MRSA colonization and infection among preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using molecular analysis of breast milk samples.
Case report, outbreak investigation.
Preterm triplets were delivered at 26 weeks' gestation via cesarean section when routine active surveillance for MRSA was performed for all infants in a NICU. Surveillance consisted of swabbing the throat, nose, and umbilicus (TNU) weekly. Although infants A and B initially had negative TNU swabs, repeat cultures were positive for MRSA on day of life (DOL) 10 and DOL 18, respectively. Surveillance and clinical cultures for infant C were negative. Infant A developed sepsis, and multiple blood cultures were positive for MRSA beginning on DOL 14. Infant B developed conjunctivitis and a conjunctival exudate culture was positive for MRSA on DOL 70. Both infants were fed breast milk via nasogastric tube. Cultures of breast milk samples for infants A and B dated prior to either infant's first positive surveillance culture were positive for MRSA. All MRSA isolates had identical results on antibiotic susceptibility testing. PFGE demonstrated identical banding patterns for the MRSA isolates from the blood culture of infant A, breast milk for infants A and B, and a surveillance swab from infant B. At no time did the mother develop evidence of mastitis or other local breast infection.
MRSA can be passed from mother to preterm infant through contaminated breast milk, even in the absence of maternal infection. Colonization and clinical disease can result.
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ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in NICUs and PICUs. Our objective was to assess the burden of MRSA colonization on admission, study the time trends, and examine the significance of MRSA colonization in this population. PubMed and Embase databases were consulted. Studies that reported prevalence of MRSA colonization on ICU admission were selected. Two authors independently extracted data on MRSA colonization and infection. We identified 18 suitable articles and found an overall prevalence of MRSA colonization of 1.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3%-2.6%) on admission to the NICU or PICU, with a stable trend over the past 12 years. Interestingly, 5.8% (95% CI 1.9%-11.4%) of outborn neonates were colonized with MRSA on admission to NICU, compared with just 0.2% (95% CI 0.0%-0.9%) of inborn neonates (P = .01). The pooled acquisition rate of MRSA colonization was 4.1% (95% CI 1.2%-8.6%) during the NICU and PICU stay and was as high as 6.1% (95% CI 2.8%-10.6%) when the NICU population was studied alone. There was a relative risk of 24.2 (95% CI 8.9-66.0) for colonized patients to develop a MRSA infection during hospitalization. In the NICU and PICU, there are carriers of MRSA on admission, and MRSA colonization in the NICU is almost exclusively associated with outborn neonates. Importantly, despite infection control measures, the acquisition rate is high, and patients colonized with MRSA on admission are more likely to suffer a MRSA infection during hospitalization.PEDIATRICS 03/2014; 133(4). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-3413 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 µL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.PEDIATRICS 10/2013; 132(5). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-1687 · 5.30 Impact Factor
Journal of Infection Prevention 04/2014; 15(3):104-109. DOI:10.1177/1757177413520057