Responses to a saline load in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-pretreated premenopausal women receiving progesterone or estradiol-progesterone therapy.
ABSTRACT The effects of estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) on fluid and sodium regulation may have important clinical implications with respect to cardiovascular and renal disease as well as reproductive syndromes such as preeclampsia and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that sodium excretion is reduced in response to a sodium load during combined P(4)-E(2) treatment, but P(4) administration alone has little effect on sodium regulation. Fifteen women (22 +/- 2 yr) used a GnRH antagonist to suppress endogenous E(2) and P(4) for 9 d; for d 4-9, eight subjects used P(4) (200 mg/d), and seven subjects used P(4) with E(2) (two E(2) patches, 0.1 mg/d each). On d 3 and 9, isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) was infused [120 min at 0.1 ml/kg body weight (BW).min], followed by 120 min of rest. Compared with GnRH antagonist alone, P([P4]) increased from 1.6 +/- 0.8 to 9.4 +/- 2.3 ng/ml (5.1 +/- 2.5 to 29.9 +/- 7.3 nmol/liter, P < 0.05) in the P(4) treated group, with no change in P([E2]). In the P(4)-E(2) treated group P([P4]) increased from 1.6 +/- 0.5 to 6.7 +/- 0.6 ng/ml (5.1 +/- 1.6 to 21.3 +/- 1.6 nmol/liter, P < 0.05 and P([E2]) increased from 17.9 +/- 6.3 to 200 +/- 41 pg/ml (65.7 +/- 23 to 734.6 +/- 150.0 pmol/liter, P < 0.05). Before isotonic saline infusion, renal sodium and water excretion were similar under all conditions, but during isotonic saline infusion, cumulative sodium excretion was lower in the P(4)-E(2) treated women (34.1 +/- 5.1 mEq) compared with GnRH antagonist (50.2 +/- 11.4 mEq). Sodium excretion was unaffected by P(4) treatment (48.0 +/- 8.2 and 41.2 +/- 5.1 mEq, for GnRH antagonist and P(4)). Compared with GnRH antagonist alone, P(4)-E(2) treatment increased distal sodium reabsorption and transiently decreased proximal sodium reabsorption, whereas P(4) treatment did not alter either distal or proximal sodium reabsorption. Before isotonic saline infusion, the plasma aldosterone (Ald) concentration was greater during P(4) treatment (153 +/- 25 pg/ml; 3883 +/- 1102 pmol/liter) and P(4)-E(2) treatment (242 +/- 47 pg/ml; 6373 +/- 1390 pmol/liter) than during their respective GnRH antagonist alone treatments [96 +/- 13 and 148 +/- 47 pg/ml (2598 +/- 475 and 3284 +/- 973 pmol/liter) for P(4) and combined P(4)-E(2), respectively]. Compared with GnRH antagonist alone treatments, preisotonic saline infusion plasma renin activity was greater only with P(4)-E(2) treatment, whereas the plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration was lower only with P(4) treatment. Isotonic saline infusion suppressed plasma Ald under all conditions, but decreased plasma renin activity only with P(4)-E(2) treatment (average decrease, 1.3 +/- 0.5 ng/ml angiotensin I.h; P < 0.05). In summary, we found that P(4)-E(2) treatment decreased sodium excretion via either renin-angiotensin-Ald system stimulation or direct effects on kidney tubules. P(4) treatment at these plasma concentrations had no independent effect on the renal response to acute sodium loading. These data suggest that E(2) is the more powerful reproductive hormone involved in sodium retention relative to P(4), and that estrogen-induced up-regulation of P(4) receptors is required for the effects of P(4) on sodium regulation.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for both men and women. Hypertension is less prevalent in young women compared to young men, but menopausal women are at greater risk for hypertension compared to men of similar age. Despite these risks, women do not consistently receive first line treatment for the early stages of hypertension, and the greater morbidity in menopause reflect this neglect. This review focuses on ovarian hormone effects on the cardiovascular and water regulatory systems that are associated with blood pressure control in women. The study of ovarian hormones within young women is complex because these hormones fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, and these fluctuations can complicate conclusions regarding sex differences. To better isolate the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on the cardiovascular and water regulation systems, we developed a model to transiently suppress reproductive function followed by controlled hormone administration. Sex differences in autonomic regulation of blood pressure appear related to ovarian hormone exposure, and these hormonal differences contribute to sex differences in hypertension and orthostatic tolerance. Oestrogen and progesterone exposure are also associated with plasma volume expansion, and a leftward shift the osmotic operating point for body fluid. In young, healthy women, the shift in osmoregulation appears to have only a minor effect on overall body water balance. Our overarching conclusion is that ovarian hormone exposure is the important underlying factor contributing to differences in blood pressure and water regulation between women and men, and within women throughout the lifespan.The Journal of Physiology 10/2012; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The maintenance of extracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na+ and Cl- reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc). We assessed Na+ and Cl- fractional excretion (FENa+ and FECl- , respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FENa+ , FECl- , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FENa+ , FECl- , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function.Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 07/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:575-620, 2014.Comprehensive Physiology. 04/2014; 4(2):575-620.