Retinoic Acid Imprints Gut-Homing Specificity on T Cells
ABSTRACT For a preferential homing of T cells to the gut, expression of the integrin alpha4beta7 and the chemokine receptor CCR9 is essential and is induced by antigenic stimulation with dendritic cells from the gut-associated lymphoid organs. Here, we show that the vitamin A (retinol) metabolite, retinoic acid, enhances the expression of alpha4beta7 and CCR9 on T cells upon activation and imprints them with the gut tropism. Dendritic cells from the gut-associated lymphoid organs produced retinoic acid from retinol. The enhanced alpha4beta7 expression on T cells by antigenic stimulation with these dendritic cells was suppressed by the retinal dehydrogenase inhibitor citral and the retinoic acid receptor antagonist LE135. Accordingly, vitamin A deficiency caused a reduction in alpha4beta7(+) memory/activated T cells in lymphoid organs and a depletion of T cells from the intestinal lamina propria. These findings revealed a novel role for retinoic acid in the imprinting of gut-homing specificity on T cells.
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ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, has been attributed to relevant functions in adaptive immunity. On T cells, the disruption on RA signaling alters both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells effector function. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of RA synthesis during the immune response using an in vivo skin transplantation model. Our data indicates that the frequency and number of cells containing an active retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH), a key enzyme for RA synthesis, is increased during skin transplant rejection. In addition, we found that the expression of the mRNA coding for the isoform RALDH2 is up-regulated on graft rejecting draining lymph nodes (dLNs) cells. Lastly, we observed that IFN-γ and IL-17 production by ex vivo re-stimulated dLNs cells is greatly increased during rejection, which it turns depends on RA synthesis, as shown in experiments using a specific RALDH inhibitor. Altogether, our data demonstrate that RA synthesis is incremented during the immune response against an allograft, and also indicates that the synthesis of RA is required for cytokine production by dLNs resident T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.Immunobiology 01/2015; 220(6). DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2014.12.018 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased childhood mortality and morbidity in impoverished Asian and African countries, but the impact of VAD on rotavirus (RV) vaccine or infection is poorly understood. We assessed effects of gestational and dietary induced pre- and post-natal VAD and vitamin A supplementation on immune responses to a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq(®) in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Vaccine efficacy was assessed against virulent G1P (Singh and West, 2004) human rotavirus (HRV) challenge. VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) piglets were derived from dietary VAD and VAS sows, respectively. VAD piglets had significantly lower levels of hepatic vitamin A compared to that of VAS piglets. RotaTeq(®)-vaccinated VAD piglets had 350-fold higher fecal virus shedding titers compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Only 25% of vaccinated non-vitamin A supplemented VAD piglets were protected against diarrhea compared with 100% protection rate in vaccinated non-supplemented VAS piglets post-challenge. Intestinal HRV specific immune responses were compromised in VAD piglets. Vaccinated VAD piglets had significantly lower ileal HRV IgG antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses (pre-challenge) and duodenal HRV IgA ASC responses (post-challenge) compared to vaccinated VAS piglets. Also, intestinal HRV IgA antibody titers were 11-fold lower in vaccinated VAD compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Persistently elevated levels of IL-8, a pro-inflammatory mediator, and lower IL-10 responses (anti-inflammatory) in vaccinated VAD compared to VAS piglets suggest more severe inflammatory responses in VAD piglets post-challenge. Moreover higher IFN-γ responses pre-challenge were observed in VAD compared to VAS piglets. The impaired vaccine-specific intestinal antibody responses and decreased immunoregulatory cytokine responses coincided with reduced protective efficacy of the RV vaccine against virulent HRV challenge in VAD piglets. In conclusion, VAD impaired antibody responses to RotaTeq(®) and vaccine efficacy. Oral supplementation of 100,000IU vitamin A concurrent with RV vaccine failed to increase the vaccine efficacy in VAD piglets.Vaccine 12/2013; 32(7). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.039 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise distinct populations with specialized immune-regulatory functions. However, the environmental factors that determine the differentiation of these subsets remain poorly defined. Here, we report that retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A derivative, controls the homeostasis of pre-DC (precursor of DC)-derived splenic CD11b(+)CD8α(-)Esam(high) DCs and the developmentally related CD11b(+)CD103(+) subset within the gut. Whereas mice deprived of RA signaling significantly lost both of these populations, neither pre-DC-derived CD11b(-)CD8α(+) and CD11b(-)CD103(+) nor monocyte-derived CD11b(+)CD8α(-)Esam(low) or CD11b(+)CD103(-) DC populations were deficient. In fate-tracking experiments, transfer of pre-DCs into RA-supplemented hosts resulted in near complete conversion of these cells into the CD11b(+)CD8α(-) subset, whereas transfer into vitamin A-deficient (VAD) hosts caused diversion to the CD11b(-)CD8α(+) lineage. As vitamin A is an essential nutrient, we evaluated retinoid levels in mice and humans after radiation-induced mucosal injury and found this conditioning led to an acute VAD state. Consequently, radiation led to a selective loss of both RA-dependent DC subsets and impaired class II-restricted auto and antitumor immunity that could be rescued by supplemental RA. These findings establish a critical role for RA in regulating the homeostasis of pre-DC-derived DC subsets and have implications for the management of patients with immune deficiencies resulting from malnutrition and irradiation.Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2013; 210(10). DOI:10.1084/jem.20122508 · 13.91 Impact Factor