The Use of a Combination of Galectin-3 and Thyroid Peroxidase for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 3.01). 11/2004; 122(4):524-31. DOI: 10.1309/UUQT-E505-PTN5-QJ7M
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this retrospective histologic study, galectin-3 had a sensitivity of 92% (22/24) for papillary thyroid carcinoma and 44% (4/9) for follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) had a sensitivity of 50% (12/24) for papillary and 11% (1/11) for follicular carcinoma. The combination of galectin-3 and TPO had a sensitivity of 96% (23/24) for papillary and 44% (4/9) for follicular carcinoma. From a prognostic standpoint, of patients whose papillary carcinomas expressed both markers, all became free of disease. Of those whose papillary carcinomas expressed galectin-3 but not TPO, 57% (4/7) became free of disease, 29% (2/7) had persistent disease, and 14% (1/7) had progressive disease. This study confirms previous observations that galectin-3 alone is highly sensitive for papillary carcinoma but not adequately sensitive for follicular carcinoma. TPO alone is not adequately sensitive for the evaluation of any thyroid lesion. The combination of galectin-3 and TPO is complementary as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with papillary carcinoma.


Available from: Samia Nawaz, Apr 21, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A major breakthrough in the field of medical oncology has been the discovery of galectins and their role in cancer development, progression and metastasis. In this review article we have condensed the results of a number of studies published over the past decade in an effort to shed some light on the unique role played by the galectin family of proteins in neoplasia, and how this knowledge may alter the approach to cancer diagnosis as well as therapy in the future. In this review we have also emphasized the potential use of galectin inhibitors or modulators in the treatment of cancer and how this novel treatment modality may affect patient outcomes in the future. Based on current pre-clinical models we believe the use of galectin inhibitors/modulators will play a significant role in cancer treatment in the future. Early clinical studies are underway to evaluate the utility of these promising agents in cancer patients.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Thyroid nodules are common among adults with only a small percentage being malignant and histologically mimic benign nodules. Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management. The determination of malignancy in follicular patterned thyroid lesions is based on postoperative histological findings. Therefore, affected patients are referred for surgery, although only 10% will have a final diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two immunohistochemical (IHC) markers; galectin-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1) individually or in combination, to distinguish between benign (non-neoplastic and neoplastic) and malignant (follicular and papillary carcinomas) thyroid lesions removed by surgical resection. Methods We investigated immunoexpression of galectin-3 and HBME-1 in 50 cases of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The benign group included 13 cases of thyroid nodular goiter (NG) and 9 cases of follicular adenoma (FA). The malignant group included 5 cases of follicular thyroid carcinomas (FC), 18 cases of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and 5 cases of follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC). Results The staining results showed that malignant tumors expressed galectin-3 and HBME-1 significantly more than benign nodules. The sensitivity of these markers for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions ranged from 89.3% to 92.9%. Co-expression of galectin-3 and HBME-1 was seen in 82.1% of carcinomas, but in none of the benign nodules. Immunoexpression was usually diffuse in malignant tumors, and focal in the benign lesions. Conclusion Our findings indicate that these immunohistochemical markers are significantly more expressed in malignant tumors compared to benign lesions and may be of additional diagnostic value when combined with routine histology. Galectin-3 has higher sensitivity and specificity of immunoexpression in thyroid malignancy than HBME-1, and the combined use of Galectin-3 and HBME-1 can increase the specificity of immunoexpression in malignant tumors
    Pathology - Research and Practice 06/2014; 210(12). DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2014.06.010 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context .- Accurate classification of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions is not always an easy task on routine surgical hematoxylin-eosin-stained or cytologic fine-needle aspiration specimens. The diagnostic challenges are partially due to differential diagnostic criteria that are often subtle and subjective. In the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in molecular gene profiling of tumors and diagnostic immunohistochemistry, aiding in diagnostic accuracy and proper patient management. Objective .- To evaluate the diagnostic utility of the most commonly studied immunomarkers in the field of thyroid pathology by review of the literature, using the database of indexed articles in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) from 1976-2013. Data Sources .- Literature review, authors' research data, and personal practice experience. Conclusions .- The appropriate use of immunohistochemistry by applying a panel of immunomarkers and using a standardized technical and interpretational method may complement the morphologic assessment and aid in the accurate classification of difficult thyroid lesions.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 01/2015; 139(1):67-82. DOI:10.5858/arpa.2014-0056-RA · 2.88 Impact Factor