The Use of a Combination of Galectin-3 and Thyroid Peroxidase for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States
American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 11/2004; 122(4):524-31. DOI: 10.1309/UUQT-E505-PTN5-QJ7M
Source: PubMed


In this retrospective histologic study, galectin-3 had a sensitivity of 92% (22/24) for papillary thyroid carcinoma and 44% (4/9) for follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) had a sensitivity of 50% (12/24) for papillary and 11% (1/11) for follicular carcinoma. The combination of galectin-3 and TPO had a sensitivity of 96% (23/24) for papillary and 44% (4/9) for follicular carcinoma. From a prognostic standpoint, of patients whose papillary carcinomas expressed both markers, all became free of disease. Of those whose papillary carcinomas expressed galectin-3 but not TPO, 57% (4/7) became free of disease, 29% (2/7) had persistent disease, and 14% (1/7) had progressive disease. This study confirms previous observations that galectin-3 alone is highly sensitive for papillary carcinoma but not adequately sensitive for follicular carcinoma. TPO alone is not adequately sensitive for the evaluation of any thyroid lesion. The combination of galectin-3 and TPO is complementary as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with papillary carcinoma.

Download full-text


Available from: Samia Nawaz, Oct 09, 2015
26 Reads
  • Source
    • "Scoring of immunohistochemistry was based on two parameters: intensity of immunoreactivity and the exact location of immunoreaction. The immunostaining intensity was scored using the following semi-quantitative scale: 1) -, no reactivity (no staining or weak staining less than 5% of the target cells), 2) +, cases presented specific staining of more than 5% of the target cells, regardless of staining intensity, were scored as positive for c-Jun, p73, Casp-9 or N-ras[22]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background To evaluate the expression and differential significance of c-Jun, p73, Casp-9 and N-ras in thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) with the aim to provide useful information for tumor biology and prospective therapy. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of four chromosome 1-related genes, namely c-Jun, p73, Casp-9 and N-ras, in 60 cases of thymic epithelial tumors. The tumors included 52 thymomas and 8 thymic carcinomas which were categorized according to the current WHO classification systems. Results Compared with the normal thymus tissue, all thymic epithelial tumors demonstrated higher expression of c-Jun and p73. The expression of c-Jun and p73 in type B2, B3 thymoma and thymic carcinomas was similar, and significantly higher than that in all other subtypes of thymomas. Unlike type A thymoma, the expression of Casp-9 was relatively lower in type B thymoma and thymic carcinomas. With respect to the clinical staging systems, c-Jun was more expressed in progressive tumors harboring higher stages. In contrast to c-Jun, p73 and Casp-9, there was no significant aberration with N-ras expression irrespective of either tissue or tumor types. Conclusions The overexpression of c-Jun, p73 and Casp-9 in thymic epithelial tumors is closely related with the pathogenesis and biological behavior of the neoplasms. These candidate biomarkers provided useful information for prospective personalized therapy in the clinical management. Additional non-English language abstract language: Chinese 背景:评估c-Jun, p73, Casp-9 和 N-ras在胸腺上皮性肿瘤诊断和鉴别诊断中的运用. 方法:根据世界卫生组织最新的诊断标准60例胸腺上皮性肿瘤分类,运用Envision法检测c-Jun,p73,Casp-9 和N-ras在不同亚型肿瘤中的表达情况,并结合临床病理学特征进行分析. 结果:c-Jun和p73在肿瘤中的表达明显高于正常胸腺组织;c-Jun和p73在B3,B2型胸腺瘤和胸腺癌的表达类似,且表达明显高于其他类型的胸腺肿瘤;Caspase-9在B型胸腺瘤和胸腺癌中的表达相对低于A型胸腺瘤;c-Jun的表达更常见于高级别的胸腺肿瘤. 结论:c-Jun,p73和Casp-9在胸腺肿瘤中的表达很好地反映了肿瘤的生物学特点,为胸腺肿瘤的诊断和鉴别诊断提供了较好的理论基础. Virtual Slides
    Diagnostic Pathology 09/2012; 7(1):120. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-7-120 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Several markers have been investigated on aspiration biopsy material and histologic specimens such as CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, CK 903, CITED1, Ret oncoprotein, CD 44, CD 57, cyclin D1 and p27. The findings were generally encouraging and promising although some studies demonstrated inconclusive or conflicting results [3,5,6,8,9,12,13,17-23]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodules are common among adults though only a small percentage is malignant, which can histologically mimic benign nodules. Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management. We investigated immunoexpression in 98 surgically removed benign thyroid nodules including 52 hyperplastic nodules (HN) and 46 follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas (FA), and 54 malignant tumors including 22 follicular carcinoma (FC), 20 classic papillary carcinoma (PTC), and 12 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC). The staining results showed that malignant tumors express galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and Ret oncoprotein significantly more than benign nodules. The sensitivity of these markers for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions ranged from 83.3% to 87%. The sensitivity of two-marker panels was not significantly different. Immunoexpression was usually diffuse and strong in malignant tumors, and focal and weak in the benign lesions. Our findings indicate that these immunomarkers are significantly more expressed in malignant tumors compared to benign lesions and may be of additional diagnostic value when combined with routine histology.
    Diagnostic Pathology 01/2010; 5(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-5-9 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "HBME1, CK19, CD26/DPPIV, TPO and c-met have also been reported to be useful markers for improving the preoperative characterisation of thyroid nodules (De Micco et al, 1994, 1999; Ruco et al, 2001; Aratake et al, 2002; Rosai, 2003; Maruta et al, 2004; Mechanick, 2004; Weber et al, 2004; Papotti et al, 2005; Prasad et al, 2005; Saggiorato et al, 2005; de Matos et al, 2005). Among the aforementioned molecules, TPO is the largest preoperatively investigated tumour marker with a high overall accuracy (De Micco et al, 1994, 1999; Christensen et al, 2000; Weber et al, 2004 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA)-cytology is widely used for the preoperative characterisation of thyroid nodules but this task is difficult for follicular lesions, which often remain undefined. We propose a strategy for improving the preoperative characterisation of selected follicular thyroid proliferations, which is based on large needle aspiration biopsy (LNAB) and galectin-3 expression analysis. Eighty-five thyroid specimens were obtained by LNAB (20-gauge needles) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate follicular FNA-cytology. Aspirated material was processed as a tissue microbiopsy to obtain cell blocks for both cyto/histo-morphological evaluation and galectin-3 expression analysis, by using a purified monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and a biotin-free immunoperoxidase staining method. Preoperative diagnosis was compared to the final histology. LNAB and cell-block technique allow a preliminary distinction between nodules with a homogeneous microfollicular/trabecular structure, as frequently observed in tumours, and lesions with mixed normo-micro-macrofollicular architecture, as observed in goitre. Furthermore, LNAB provides optimal substrates for galectin-3 expression analysis. Among 85 cases tested, 14 galectin-3-positive cases were discovered preoperatively (11 thyroid cancers and three adenomas confirmed at the final histology), whereas galectin-3-negative cases were 71 (one carcinoma and 70 benign proliferations at the final histology). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of this integrated morphologic and phenotypic diagnostic approach were 91.6, 97.2 and 95.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LNAB plus galectin-3 expression analysis when applied preoperatively to selected thyroid nodules candidate to surgery can potentially reduce unnecessary thyroid resections.
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2006; 95(2):204-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603232 · 4.84 Impact Factor
Show more