Peripheral thyroid hormones and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Department of Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN (Impact Factor: 5.86). 10/2004; 29(5):383-6.
Source: PubMed


To examine the relation between baseline measurements of thyroid function and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and to consider the effect of these antidepressants on thyroid hormone levels.
Nineteen subjects with major depression, but without a history of thyroid treatment or lithium treatment, were treated openly with either sertraline or fluoxetine in a university- affiliated tertiary care hospital. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D) scores were measured before and after treatment. Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scores were measured at study end. Thyroid data, consisting of values for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T(3), measured by radioimmunoassay [RIA]), thyroxine (T(4), measured by RIA) and free T(4), were collected before and after treatment. Complete thyroid data were available for 17 subjects. Data were collected during 1997-1999.
Baseline TSH correlated strongly with response to treatment as measured by change in Ham-D scores (r = 0.64, p = 0.003). Low TSH values correlated with greater improvement in depressive symptoms. Thyroid hormone levels decreased with treatment, but these decreases did not correlate with clinical improvement.
Baseline thyroid function, as measured by serum TSH, may predict a patient's response to antidepressant treatment with SSRIs. Optimal thyroid function, beyond simply being within the normal laboratory values, may be necessary for an optimal response to antidepressants.

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Available from: Stanley G Korenman, Jul 17, 2014
    • "The association between thyroid dysfunction and mood disorders is well recognized. The prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders is higher in patients with thyroid dysfunction1, thyroid status predicts treatment response in major depression and bipolar disorder2, augmentation with thyroid hormone has therapeutic efficacy in treatment-resistant depression3, and additionally, thyroid hormone receptors are localized to limbic structures implicated in regulation of mood4. The nature of the association between thyroid dysfunction and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders has, however, not been well studied. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: Abnormalities in thyroid hormonal status is common in major psychiatric disorders. Although the relevance of thyroid dysfunction to bipolar disorder is well-recognized, yet the association between thyroid dysfunction and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is under-emphasized. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the rates of abnormal thyroid hormonal status in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and mood disorders in an inpatient tertiary care general hospital psychiatry unit. Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based study on 468 inpatient samples. Data on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 (triiodothyroxine), T4 (L-thyroxine), free unbound fractions of T3 and T4 (FT3 and FT4) were obtained from records of 343 patients, 18 patients were anti-TPO (anti thyroid peroxidase antibody) positive. The rates of abnormal thyroid hormonal status were compared using the chi square test. Results: Abnormal thyroid hormonal status in general, and presence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, in particular were seen in 29.3, 25.17 and 4.08 per cent patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, respectively. These were comparable to the rates in patients with mood disorders (23.24, 21.62 and 1.62%, respectively). Eleven of the 18 patients with antiTPO positivity had a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. There were no gender differences. Interpretation & conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction was present in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder as well as mood disorders. Autoimmune thyroid disease was more commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to mood disorders. The findings reiterate the relevance of screening patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for abnormal thyroid hormonal status.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 12/2013; 138(6):888-93. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, higher baseline free T4 was inversely correlated with the time to response in males. We (Gitlin et al. 2004) and others (Amsterdam et al. 1996; Berlin and Corruble 2002) have reported that "
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of reliable outcome predictors and the delayed onset of therapeutic response to antidepressants are among the clinical challenges in the treatment of depression. Identifying clinical correlates associated with antidepressant response would reduce symptom severity and morbidity for patients with depression. Twenty-three subjects with major depression were treated with citalopram 20 mg/day in a 6-week open trial and were also simultaneously randomized to either adjunctive triiodothyronine (T3) 25 μg BID (n = 7), pindolol 5 mg BID (n = 8), or placebo (n = 8). Baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, FT3, and TT3 were measured for potential relationships to treatment response across groups. In males only, there was a significant inverse correlation between baseline free T4 and time to response (r = -0.7, P = 0.034). In both males and females across all treatment conditions, as measured by Kaplan-Meier (K-M) maintenance failure time, baseline TSH below the mean (1.5 ng/dL) was associated with a shorter time to response (50% reduction in Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score) (χ(2) = 4.53, df = 1, P = 0.03). Patients with baseline TSH above the mean were less likely to reach full remission (MADRS ≤ 7) (χ(2) = 4.38, df = 1, P = 0.03). No significant differences between groups emerged in the mean response time. Baseline thyroid function, as measured by serum free T4 and TSH, may predict a patient's response time to antidepressant treatment with citalopram.
    Brain and Behavior 03/2013; 3(2):89-94. DOI:10.1002/brb3.109 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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