Base rates for panic and depression according to the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire: A population-based study

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University of Marburg, Gutenbergstr. 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 11/2004; 82(2):271-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.11.006
Source: PubMed


Recently published studies analyzing sensitivity and specificity scores have demonstrated that the brief version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ [J. Am. Med. Assoc. 282 (1999) 1734]) is a useful tool for the detection of panic disorder and depression.
We aimed to get normative data for the brief PHQ in a representative population-based sample. Sociodemographic data and PHQ data from 2066 subjects were included.
Base rates for PHQ criteria of major depression were 3.8% with the typical 1:2 ratio between males and females (frequency of minor depressive forms: 9.2%). Normative data for the depression total scores were reported. Marital status, education and family income were significantly associated with depression, even after controlling for age and sex. For panic disorder, base rates were 1.8%; age, gender, and marital status were significant predictors. Frequency for panic attacks as a less restrictively defined version were 4.5%.
The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation of depression and panic scores of the PHQ.

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Available from: Winfried Rief,
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    • "The interaction style becomes a very important factor to control, since parameters like the gender of the interviewer or, in our case, the interviewer being a virtual agent, can affect the genders' perception [29]. In addition to the above, some pshychological conditions like depression and PTSD have different base rates among the two genders [30], thus making it difficult to produce balanced populations for studies, and this could be seen as an additional motivation why genderdependent analysis might be beneficial. At this point, we would like to mention that the introduced gender-dependent approach does not hinter nor discourage a fully automatic approach for producing indicators for depression and PTSD. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we show that gender plays an important role in the automatic assessment of psychological conditions such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We identify a directly interpretable and intuitive set of predictive indicators, selected from three general categories of nonverbal behaviors: affect, expression variability and motor variability. For the analysis, we introduce a semi-structured virtual human interview dataset which includes 53 video recorded interactions. Our experiments on automatic classification of psychological conditions show that a gender-dependent approach significantly improves the performance over a gender agnostic one.
    to appear in Proceedings of International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII); 09/2013
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    • "The PHQ-9 score can range from 0 to 27. The instrument demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89; Rief et al., 2004). In a study by Martin et al. (2006), the construct validity of the PHQ-9 was assessed by correlating its total score with a shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory (Schmitt and Maes, 2000) (r = 0.73) and the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg and Williams, 1988) (r = 0.59). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In general, chronic pain is categorized into two mechanism-based groups: nociceptive and neuropathic pain. This dichotomous approach is questioned and a dimensional perspective is suggested. The present study investigated neuropathic characteristics in different syndromes of chronic pain. We also examined the association of neuropathic characteristics with various pain related and psychological variables. Methods: From April 2010 to January 2012, 400 patients suffering from a chronic pain condition enrolled for multidisciplinary pain treatment were considered for inclusion in the study. Criteria for inclusion were age over 18 years and having chronic pain according to ICD-10 (F45.41) criteria. The pain DETECT questionnaire was used to assess neuropathic characteristics of pain. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients with different pain diagnoses demonstrated distinct neuropathic characteristics. The diagnostic groups for neuropathic pain, musculoskeletal pain and post traumatic or surgical pain showed the most neuropathic features. The level of depression, pain chronicity and intensity, disability and length of hospital stay were significantly higher in patients suffering from neuropathic symptoms. A high level of depression and pain chronicity as well as high intensity of pain explained most of the variance in the neuropathic scores. Disability and length of hospital stay significantly predicted neuropathic characteristics only when examined separately, but not if included in a common regression model. Conclusions: Any type of chronic pain may have more or less neuropathic characteristics. The pain-related parameters of high intensity and chronicity as well as negative affectivity and functional disability strongly correlate with neuropathic characteristics of pain.
    European journal of pain (London, England) 06/2013; 17(10). DOI:10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00322.x · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "In the present study a PHQ-9 score of 5 corresponds to a percentile rank of 79.3% in the total sample, of 10 to a percentile rank of 95.1%, and of 15–98.9%. These classifications differ from previous results [11], where a PHQ-9 score of 5 was assigned to a percentile rank of 75% and, respectively, of 10 to percentiles between 90% and 95%, and for a sum score of 15 between 95% and 99%. Selected results on the factor structure differentiated between a somatic and a non-somatic dimension of depression [14– 16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is widely used as an open access screening instrument for depression in different health care and community settings; thus far, normative data from the general population are still scarce. The objectives of the study were to generate normative data and to further investigate the construct validity and factor structure of the PHQ-9 in the general population. Methods: Nationally representative face-to face household surveys were conducted in Germany between 2003 and 2008 (n=5018). The survey questionnaires included the PHQ-9, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) for the measurement of health-related quality of life and demographic characteristics. Results: Normative data for the PHQ-9 were generated for both genders (53.6% female) and different age levels [mean age (S.D.) of 48.9 (18.1) years]. Women had significantly higher mean (S.D.) scores compared with men [3.1 (3.5) vs. 2.7 (3.5)]. A prevalence rate of moderate to high severity of depressive symptoms of 5.6% was identified. Intercorrelations with depression were highest for the Mental Component Scale of the SF-12, followed by the Physical Component Scale of health-related quality of life, and life satisfaction. Results supported a one-factor model of depression. Conclusions: The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of depression with other populations. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the unidimensional PHQ-9 as a measure of depression in the general population.
    General hospital psychiatry 05/2013; 35(5). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.04.006 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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