C. elegans ORFeome version 3.1: increasing the coverage of ORFeome resources with improved gene predictions.
ABSTRACT The first version of the Caenorhabditis elegans ORFeome cloning project, based on release WS9 of Wormbase (August 1999), provided experimental verifications for approximately 55% of predicted protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs). The remaining 45% of predicted ORFs could not be cloned, possibly as a result of mispredicted gene boundaries. Since the release of WS9, gene predictions have improved continuously. To test the accuracy of evolving predictions, we attempted to PCR-amplify from a highly representative worm cDNA library and Gateway-clone approximately 4200 ORFs missed earlier and for which new predictions are available in WS100 (May 2003). In this set we successfully cloned 63% of ORFs with supporting experimental data ("touched" ORFs), and 42% of ORFs with no supporting experimental evidence ("untouched" ORFs). Approximately 2000 full-length ORFs were cloned in-frame, 13% of which were corrected in their exon/intron structure relative to WS100 predictions. In total, approximately 12,500 C. elegans ORFs are now available as Gateway Entry clones for various reverse proteomics (ORFeome v3.1). This work illustrates why the cloning of a complete C. elegans ORFeome, and likely the ORFeomes of other multicellular organisms, needs to be an iterative process that requires multiple rounds of experimental validation together with gradually improving gene predictions.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Stuart Milstein, May 24, 2015
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 01/2015; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research in the relationship between the architecture and function of proteins aims to understand the mechanism of proteins folding and their activity at the atomic level. This knowledge leads to a progress in new technologies that allow simultaneous production of numerous proteins on a large scale – high throughput protein production (HTPP) methods. The HTPP methods allow parallel processing of multiple samples and are also important for the determination of optimal protein production procedure, where usually combinations of different conditions have to be tested. This article describes available cloning, expression, and purification approaches that may be used in a high throughput and parallel manner. Additionally, the implementation of automation facilities is briefly outlined.Biotechnologia 01/2011; 2:119-131. DOI:10.5114/bta.2011.46525
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ABSTRACT: Recent work has identified changes in the metabolism of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine as a risk factor for diabetes and a contributor to the development of liver cancer. While these findings could suggest a role for tyrosine as a direct regulator of the behavior of cells and tissues, evidence for this model is currently lacking. Through the use of RNAi and genetic mutants, we identify tatn-1, which is the worm ortholog of tyrosine aminotransferase and catalyzes the first step of the conserved tyrosine degradation pathway, as a novel regulator of the dauer decision and modulator of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like (IGFR) signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations affecting tatn-1 elevate tyrosine levels in the animal, and enhance the effects of mutations in genes that lie within the daf-2/insulin signaling pathway or are otherwise upstream of daf-16/FOXO on both dauer formation and worm longevity. These effects are mediated by elevated tyrosine levels as supplemental dietary tyrosine mimics the phenotypes produced by a tatn-1 mutation, and the effects still occur when the enzymes needed to convert tyrosine into catecholamine neurotransmitters are missing. The effects on dauer formation and lifespan require the aak-2/AMPK gene, and tatn-1 mutations increase phospho-AAK-2 levels. In contrast, the daf-16/FOXO transcription factor is only partially required for the effects on dauer formation and not required for increased longevity. We also find that the controlled metabolism of tyrosine by tatn-1 may function normally in dauer formation because the expression of the TATN-1 protein is regulated both by daf-2/IGFR signaling and also by the same dietary and environmental cues which influence dauer formation. Our findings point to a novel role for tyrosine as a developmental regulator and modulator of longevity, and support a model where elevated tyrosine levels play a causal role in the development of diabetes and cancer in people.PLoS Genetics 12/2013; 9(12):e1004020. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004020 · 8.17 Impact Factor