Together with metabolites, proteins and RNAs form complex biological systems through highly intricate networks of physical and functional interactions. Large-scale studies aimed at a molecular understanding of the structure, function, and dynamics of proteins and RNAs in the context of cellular networks require novel approaches and technologies. This Special Issue of Genome Research features strategies for the high-throughput construction and manipulation of complete sets of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFeome), gene promoters (promoterome), and noncoding RNAs, as predicted from genome and transcriptome sequences. Here we discuss the use of a recombinational cloning system that allows efficiency, adaptability, and compatibility in the generation of ORFeome, promoterome, and other resources.
"It would also allow a large number of fusions based on a given ORF to be cloned simultaneously into an array of model-specific expression vectors in combination with a collection of functional modules (Figure 1B). A cloning toolkit with such features would represent an advance over previous systems constructed according to similar design principles . Furthermore, our toolkit would ideally tap into the wealth of ORFeome resources produced by the efforts of different laboratories leading the mass-production of parts for systems biology , a feature shared with previous designs [9,10]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valuable clone collections encoding the complete ORFeomes for some model organisms have been constructed following the completion of their genome sequencing projects. These libraries are based on Gateway cloning technology, which facilitates the study of protein function by simplifying the subcloning of open reading frames (ORF) into any suitable destination vector. The expression of proteins of interest as fusions with functional modules is a frequent approach in their initial functional characterization. A limited number of Gateway destination expression vectors allow the construction of fusion proteins from ORFeome-derived sequences, but they are restricted to the possibilities offered by their inbuilt functional modules and their pre-defined model organism-specificity. Thus, the availability of cloning systems that overcome these limitations would be highly advantageous.
We present a versatile cloning toolkit for constructing fully-customizable three-part fusion proteins based on the MultiSite Gateway cloning system. The fusion protein components are encoded in the three plasmids integral to the kit. These can recombine with any purposely-engineered destination vector that uses a heterologous promoter external to the Gateway cassette, leading to the in-frame cloning of an ORF of interest flanked by two functional modules. In contrast to previous systems, a third part becomes available for peptide-encoding as it no longer needs to contain a promoter, resulting in an increased number of possible fusion combinations. We have constructed the kit's component plasmids and demonstrate its functionality by providing proof-of-principle data on the expression of prototype fluorescent fusions in transiently-transfected cells.
We have developed a toolkit for creating fusion proteins with customized N- and C-term modules from Gateway entry clones encoding ORFs of interest. Importantly, our method allows entry clones obtained from ORFeome collections to be used without prior modifications. Using this technology, any existing Gateway destination expression vector with its model-specific properties could be easily adapted for expressing fusion proteins.
"Proteinase K, is a key step for breaking the cell wall. The GATEWAY™ Cloning System (Invitrogen, USA) is one of the most powerful systems developed for cloning and expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli
(20, 21). The pET301/CT DEST vector has a strong T7 promoter and can be grown in combination with pLysS to provide additional stringency (22, 23). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrococcus woesei is a hyperthermophilic archaea and produces a heat stable polymerase (Pwo polymerase) that has proofreading activity.
In this study, this microorganism was cultured, its DNA was extracted and the pwo gene polymerase was cloned, expressed and purified. The DNA sequence of the cloned gene was verified by sequencing. The pwo polymerase gene consists of 2,328 bps (775 amino acids with about 90 kD molecular weight). Cloning was done by GATEWAY™ Cloning System and for purification of recombinant protein; His6x-Tag was added to the C-terminus of the recombinant protein.
We could purify Pwo polymerase enzyme by Ni-NTA resin. PCR assay showed that Pwo polymerase activity is comparable to a commercial Pfu polymerase activity.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology 09/2011; 3(3):118-22.
"These “ORFeome” collections, as they are termed, require huge efforts in terms of time and resources. Once cloned, recombinatorial cloning systems allow relatively straightforward transfer between different vectors for genome scale projects . However, even after correct gene identification and cloning, challenges are still present in terms of full-length protein expression and purification, with as few as 30% of proteins expressed solubly in E. coli at sufficient levels to be experimentally useful [8,9]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to carry out experimental gene annotation, DNA encoding open reading frames (ORFs) derived from real genes (termed "genic") in the correct frame is required. When genes are correctly assigned, isolation of genic DNA for functional annotation can be carried out by PCR. However, not all genes are correctly assigned, and even when correctly assigned, gene products are often incorrectly folded when expressed in heterologous hosts. This is a problem that can sometimes be overcome by the expression of protein fragments encoding domains, rather than full-length proteins. One possible method to isolate DNA encoding such domains would to "filter" complex DNA (cDNA libraries, genomic and metagenomic DNA) for gene fragments that confer a selectable phenotype relying on correct folding, with all such domains present in a complex DNA sample, termed the "domainome".
In this paper we discuss the preparation of diverse genic ORF libraries from randomly fragmented genomic DNA using ß-lactamase to filter out the open reading frames. By cloning DNA fragments between leader sequences and the mature ß-lactamase gene, colonies can be selected for resistance to ampicillin, conferred by correct folding of the lactamase gene. Our experiments demonstrate that the majority of surviving colonies contain genic open reading frames, suggesting that ß-lactamase is acting as a selectable folding reporter. Furthermore, different leaders (Sec, TAT and SRP), normally translocating different protein classes, filter different genic fragment subsets, indicating that their use increases the fraction of the "domainone" that is accessible.
The availability of ORF libraries, obtained with the filtering method described here, combined with screening methods such as phage display and protein-protein interaction studies, or with protein structure determination projects, can lead to the identification and structural determination of functional genic ORFs. ORF libraries represent, moreover, a useful tool to proceed towards high-throughput functional annotation of newly sequenced genomes.
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