Article

Risk factors for aortic complications in adults with coarctation of the aorta.

Adult Congenital Heart Disease Unit, Radiology Department, La Paz University Hospital, Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid, Spain.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 11/2004; 44(8):1641-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.07.037
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sought to determine the prevalence and predisposing condition for aortic wall complications in adults with either repaired or non-repaired coarctation of the aorta.
Aortic wall complications may develop in adults with coarctation of the aorta, despite successful surgical repair in childhood.
A total of 235 adults with coarctation (mean age 27 +/- 13 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment had been performed by surgery in 181 patients (group I) or by balloon angioplasty or stenting in 28 patients (group II). No previous intervention had been carried out in 26 patients with mild coarctation at diagnosis (group III).
Forty-four aortic wall complications were found in 37 patients (16%). There were no differences among the three groups with respect to total complications (15%, 18%, and 15%, respectively), ascending aortic aneurysms (9%, 11%, and 12%), or descending aortic aneurysms (4% in all three groups). Multivariate analysis did not show a significant relationship between previous repair, type of repair, age at repair, residual Doppler pressure gradient, or systemic hypertension and the occurrence of aortic complications. Only aging (risk ratio [RR] 1.4 per decade of age, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 1.8, p = 0.002) and bicuspid aortic valve (RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 7.5, p = 0.005) were significantly related to these complications.
Aortic wall complications are frequent in adults with coarctation of the aorta beyond that attributable to associated hemodynamic derangement or previous repair. The only independent risk factors appear to be advanced age and bicuspid aortic valve.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
67 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 22-year-old man was referred for severe aortic coarctation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirmed the aortic coarctation diagnosis and showed an aortic pseudoaneurysm arising from the anterior and left surface of the descending aorta, communicating with the aortic lumen with a small neck. Under cardiopulmonary bypass through the femoral vessels, the patient underwent closure of the pseudoaneurysm neck using a synthetic patch and interposition of a prosthetic graft between the left subclavian artery and the descending aorta below the pseudoaneurysm. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 01/2015; 99(1):e3-e5. · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mycotic aneurysm is a rare condition occasionally seen in patients with a history of prior cardiac or vascular surgery. Here we report the presentation of a mycotic aneurysm in a pediatric patient at the site of prior aortic coarctation repair. This patient's initial presentation suggested rheumatologic or oncologic disease, and after diagnosis he continued to show evidence of splenic, renal and vascular injury distal to the mycotic aneurysm site while being treated with antibiotics. We discuss the diagnosis, treatment and management of this condition.
    Annals of Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014; 7(2):138-41.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 84.6 N/m2; isolated COA = 44 N/m2) and TKE (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 215 N/m2; isolated COA = 100 N/m2). This demonstrates that the pathological aortic valve strongly interacts with the COA. Findings of this study indicate that the presence of both a COA and a pathological aortic valve significantly alters hemodynamics in the aorta and thus might contribute to the progression of the disease in this region. This study can partially explain the complications associated in patients with COA, in the presence of a pathological aortic valve and the consequent adverse outcome post-surgery.
    Experiments in Fluids 02/2014; 55(3). · 1.91 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
9 Downloads
Available from
Oct 24, 2014