Mechanisms of glucocorticoid signalling.
ABSTRACT It has become increasingly clear that glucocorticoid signalling not only comprises the binding of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to its response element (GRE), but also involves indirect regulation glucocorticoid-responsive genes by regulating or interacting with other transcription factors. In addition, they can directly regulate gene expression by binding to negative glucocorticoid response elements (nGREs), to simple GREs, to GREs, or to GREs and GRE half sites (GRE1/2s) that are part of a regulatory unit. A response unit allows a higher level of glucocorticoid induction than simple GREs and, in addition, allows the integration of tissue-specific information with the glucocorticoid response. Presumably, the complexity of such a glucocorticoid response unit (GRU) depends on the number of pathways that integrate at this unit. Because GRUs are often located at distant sites relative to the transcription-start site, the GRU has to find a way to communicate with the basal-transcription machinery. We propose that the activating signal of a distal enhancer can be relayed onto the transcription-initiation complex by coupling elements located proximal to the promoter.
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ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to identify a new selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand for the treatment of chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The IN Cell Analyzer 1000 platform was employed to screen for compounds that may promote GR nuclear translocation. A mammalian two-hybrid system and transactivation assay-were used to analyze the selected GR ligands and evaluate their activities for GR transcription and the recruitment of co-activators. A novel selective GR ligand, compound Q40, was identified that was able to promote GR nuclear translocation in a short period of time. It increased the ability of GR to recruit co-activators in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no positive effect on GR transcriptional activity. In conclusion, an increase in the expression levels of gluconeogeneic genes, induced by the transcriptional activation of GR, is the predisposing factor most commonly associated with the side-effects of glucocorticoids. The results suggest that compound Q40 is a ligand of the GR and exerts an agonistic action on the recruitment of co-activators without sugar dysmetabolism-related side-effects. Thus, compound Q40 has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory adjuvant therapy with minimal side-effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 10/2014; 8(4):1111-1114. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression of protein-coding genes requires the selective role of many transcription factors, whose coordinated actions remain poorly understood. To further grasp the molecular mechanisms that govern transcription, we focused our attention on the general transcription factor TFIIH, which gives rise, once mutated, to Trichothiodystrophy (TTD), a rare autosomal premature-ageing disease causing inter alia, metabolic dysfunctions. Since this syndrome could be connected to transcriptional defects, we investigated the ability of a TTD mouse model to cope with food deprivation, knowing that energy homeostasis during fasting involves an accurate regulation of the gluconeogenic genes in the liver. Abnormal amounts of gluconeogenic enzymes were thus observed in TTD hepatic parenchyma, which was related to the dysregulation of the corresponding genes. Strikingly, such gene expression defects resulted from the inability of PGC1-α to fulfill its role of coactivator. Indeed, extensive molecular analyses unveiled that wild-type TFIIH cooperated in an ATP-dependent manner with PGC1-α as well as with the deacetylase SIRT1, thereby contributing to the PGC1-α deacetylation by SIRT1. Such dynamic partnership was, however, impaired when TFIIH was mutated, having as a consequence the disruption of PGC1-α recruitment to the promoter of target genes. Therefore, besides a better understanding of the etiology of TFIIH-related disease, our results shed light on the synergistic relationship that exist between different types of transcription factors, which is necessary to properly regulate the expression of protein coding genes.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004732. · 8.17 Impact Factor
Article: HPA Axis-Rhythms.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates circulating levels of glucocorticoid hormones, and is the major neuroendocrine system in mammals that provides a rapid response and defense against stress. Under basal (i.e., unstressed) conditions, glucocorticoids are released with a pronounced circadian rhythm, characterized by peak levels of glucocorticoids during the active phase, that is daytime in humans and nighttime in nocturnal animals such as mice and rats. When studied in more detail, it becomes clear that the circadian rhythm of the HPA axis is characterized by a pulsatile release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland that results in rapid ultradian oscillations of hormone levels both in the blood and within target tissues, including the brain. In this review, we discuss the regulation of these circadian and ultradian HPA rhythms, how these rhythms change in health and disease, and how they affect the physiology and behavior of the organism. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:1273-1298, 2014.Comprehensive Physiology. 07/2014; 4(3):1273-98.