[Evaluation of pre- and post-transfusion serological screening in France in 2001].
ABSTRACT Screening of labile blood products recipients for HIV and HCV has been performed in France since a government recommendation was issued in 1996. It has been designed to get transfusion related contamination of recipients through pre- and post-transfusion serological tests. Since then, residual risk has decreased dramatically and it was suspected that recommendations might sometimes be ignored. A nationwide survey has been done to measure the real screening rate and its cost efficacy ratio. In addition accuracy of tracability and recipients mortality has also been evaluated. A random sample of 1115 labile blood products among all the 1203 378 distributed during first semester of 2001 in France has been drawn. They have been matched with test results obtained in hospital files. Tracability has been considered accurate if name, surname and birth date of recipients were exactly the same both in hospital file and in the file of the Etablissement Français du Sang. A total of 1092 hospital files has been retrieved. Pre transfusion HIV and HCV tests have been performed in 58.5 % of cases, 95 % CI [55.6-61.5], and post-transfusion tests in 30.5 % [28.5-35.5] of cases. Only 19.5% [16.6-22.6] of recipients, not known to be dead 6 months after transfusion, have had both pre and post-transfusion tests. No HIV or HCV contamination has been notified by the Haemovigilance network during the same period. Accuracy rate of tracability was 96.25% [94.9-97.3]. Furthermore 35.8% [33-38.7] of recipients were found dead within 6 months after transfusion. A logistic regression analysis showed that the hospital area, the hospital size (more than 300 beds) and the annual amount of blood bags transfused in it (less than 5000) were factors independently associated with having a full pre and post-transfusion screening. Currently, the screening program may detect 0.14 cases of HIV and 0.05 HCV transfusion related contamination of recipient every year. The total cost of this program is about 20 million euro and the cost per case exceeds 110 million euro. The program will be of no use in case of an emerging transmitable disease. This program does not comply to any evaluation criteria of screening programs and its cost efficacy ratio is very poor.