Article

Effect of fetal hemoglobin on microvascular regulation in sickle transgenic-knockout mice

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.
Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.77). 11/2004; 114(8):1136-45. DOI: 10.1172/JCI21633
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In sickle cell disease, intravascular sickling and attendant flow abnormalities underlie the chronic inflammation and vascular endothelial abnormalities. However, the relationship between sickling and vascular tone is not well understood. We hypothesized that sickling-induced vaso-occlusive events and attendant oxidative stress will affect microvascular regulatory mechanisms. In the present studies, we have examined whether microvascular abnormalities expressed in sickle transgenic-knockout Berkeley (BERK) mice (which express exclusively human alpha- and beta(S)-globins with <1% gamma-globin levels) are amenable to correction with increased levels of antisickling fetal hemoglobin (HbF). In BERK mice, sickling, increased oxidative stress, and hemolytic anemia are accompanied by vasodilation, compensatory increases in eNOS and COX-2, and attenuated vascular responses to NO-mediated vasoactive stimuli and norepinephrine. The hypotension and vasodilation (required for adequate oxygen delivery in the face of chronic anemia) are mediated by non-NO vasodilators (i.e., prostacyclin) as evidenced by induction of COX-2. In BERK mice, the resistance to NO-mediated vasodilators is associated with increased oxidative stress and hemolytic rate, and in BERK + gamma mice (expressing 20% HbF), an improved response to these stimuli is associated with reduced oxidative stress and hemolytic rate. Furthermore, BERK + gamma mice show normalization of vessel diameters, and eNOS and COX-2 expression. These results demonstrate a strong relationship between sickling and microvascular function in sickle cell disease.

Full-text

Available from: Mary Fabry, Jun 15, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
93 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with sudden death and is a risk factor for mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease. The high mortality despite only mild-to-moderate increases in pulmonary vascular resistance remains an unresolved paradox. Accordingly, little is known about the cardiovascular effects of stressors, such as vaso-occlusive pain crisis (VOC) and exercise, which may acutely increase pulmonary pressures and impair right heart function. We therefore evaluated pulmonary artery pressures by echocardiogram in 25 patients with sickle cell disease in steady-state and during VOC, and by right heart catheterisation with exercise in a second cohort of 21 patients to determine whether pulmonary hypertension worsens during acute cardiopulmonary stress. TRV increased during VOC (P < 0.001), and the increased pulmonary pressures during VOC were associated with decreases in haemoglobin levels (P < 0.001), and increases in lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001) and plasma haemoglobin levels (P = 0.03). During exercise stress performed during cardiac catheterisation, mean pulmonary artery pressures (P < 0.001) and pulmonary vascular resistance increased (P < 0.001) in all subjects. These data suggest that acute elevations in pulmonary pressures during VOC or exercise may contribute to morbidity and mortality in patients with sickle cell disease.
    British Journal of Haematology 01/2007; 136(2):319-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06417.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). In spite of the mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressures in these patients, the associated morbidity and mortality is high. In fact, in adult patients with SCD, pulmonary hypertension is emerging as the major independent risk factor for death. The aetiology of pulmonary hypertension is probably multifactorial, including haemolysis, impaired nitric oxide bioavailability, chronic hypoxaemia, thromboembolism, parenchymal and vascular injury because of sequestration of sickle erythrocytes, chronic liver disease and asplenia. Interestingly, pulmonary hypertension is emerging as a common, and probably, invariant sequella of lifelong haemolytic anaemia in other hereditary and acquired haemolytic diseases, such as thalassaemia, stomatocytosis and spherocytosis. There are currently limited specific data on the effects of any treatment modality for pulmonary hypertension in patients with SCD. It is likely that maximization of SCD therapy, in all patients, and treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents, in patients with severe disease, would be beneficial. A large trial evaluating the effects of therapy for pulmonary hypertension in the SCD population is clearly indicated.
    British Journal of Haematology 06/2005; 129(4):449-64. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05432.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling, is stimulated by Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+)-permeable, PGE2-activated cation channels, by ceramide, caspases, calpain, complement, hyperosmotic shock, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and deranged activity of several kinases (e.g. AMPK, GK, PAK2, CK1α, JAK3, PKC, p38-MAPK). Eryptosis is triggered by intoxication, malignancy, hepatic failure, diabetes, chronic renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, dehydration, phosphate depletion, fever, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Eryptosis may precede and protect against hemolysis but by the same token result in anemia and deranged microcirculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 01/2015; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.01.009 · 5.97 Impact Factor