Lung effects during a generalized Shwartzman reaction and therapeutic intervention with dexamethasone or vitamin E.
ABSTRACT We investigated if a two-hit shock model, commonly referred to as generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR), can prime for indirect acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in mice. The GSR was provoked in C57BL/6 mice by two consecutive i.p. injections of 100 microg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at t = 0 and t = 20 h. These mice demonstrated a dramatic decrease in respiratory capacity and 80% mortality after the second injection. No such effect was observed when LPS was given as a single 200 microg dose at t = 0. Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in serum (interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma), lung neutrophilia, and edema formation were observed in mice injected with one dose of LPS, but notably, mice exposed twice did not further increase their inflammatory response. Early treatment 1 h after the first LPS injection (t = 1 h) with either dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) or vitamin E (50 mg/kg) improved respiratory function and down-modulated the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in serum. In conclusion, mice with a generalized Shwartzman reaction exhibited features resembling some aspects of the pathophysiology in septic ARDS, i.e., neutrophilic inflammation, edema formation, impaired respiratory capacity, and mortality. Our data indicate that a systemic cytokine response and lung neutrophilia may prime for the GSR but that other mechanisms account for the rapid decline in lung function after the second challenge. We suggest that this model can be used for studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic prevention of acute respiratory failure.
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ABSTRACT: Endotoxin tolerance (ET), defined as reduced inflammatory responsiveness to endotoxin challenge following a first encounter with endotoxin, is an extensively studied phenomenon. Although reduced mortality and morbidity in the presence of ET has been demonstrated in animal studies, little is known about the temporal development of ET. Further, in acute respiratory distress syndrome ET correlates to the severity of the disease, suggesting a complicated relation between ET and organ dysfunction. Eighteen pigs were subjected to intensive care and a continuous endotoxin infusion for 24 h with the aim to study the time course of early ET and to relate ET to outcome in organ dysfunction. Three animals served as non-endotoxemic controls. Blood samples for cytokine analyses were taken and physiological variables registered every third hour. Production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 before and after endotoxin stimulation ex vivo was measured. The difference between cytokine values after and before ex vivo LPS stimulation (Δ-values) was calculated for all time points. ΔTNF-α was employed as the principal marker of ET and lower ΔTNF-α values were interpreted as higher levels of ET. During endotoxin infusion, there was suppression of ex vivo productions of TNF-α and IL-6 but not of IL-10 in comparison with that at 0 h. The ex vivo TNF-α values followed another time concentration curve than those in vivo. ΔTNF-α was at the lowest already at 6 h, followed by an increase during the ensuing hours. ΔTNF-α at 6 h correlated positively to blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance and negatively to cardiac index at 24 h. In this study a temporal variation of ET was demonstrated that did not follow changes in plasma TNF-α concentrations. Maximal ET occurred early in the course and the higher the ET, the more hyperdynamic the circulation 18 h later.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53221. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chlorine (Cl2) is an industrial gas that is highly toxic and irritating when inhaled causing tissue damage and an acute inflammatory response in the airways followed by a long-term airway dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early anti-inflammatory treatment can protect against the delayed symptoms in Cl2-exposed mice. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only inhalation using 200 ppm Cl2 during 15 min. Assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage, occurrence of lung edema and lung fibrosis was analyzed 24 h or 14 days post exposure. A single dose of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (10 or 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1, 3, 6, or 12 h following Cl2 exposure. High-dose of dexamethasone reduced the acute inflammation if administered within 6 h after exposure but treated animals still displayed a significant lung injury. The effect of dexamethasone administered within 1 h was dose-dependent; high-dose significantly reduced acute airway inflammation (100 mg/kg) but not treatment with the relatively low-dose (10 mg/kg). Both doses reduced AHR 14 days later, while lung fibrosis measured as collagen deposition was not significantly reduced. The results point out that the acute inflammation in the lungs due to Cl2 exposure only partly is associated with the long-term AHR. We hypothesize that additional pathogenic mechanisms apart from the inflammatory reactions contribute to the development of long-term airway dysfunction. By using this mouse model, we have validated early administration of corticosteroids in terms of efficacy to prevent acute lung injury and delayed symptoms induced by Cl2 exposure.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 05/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acute pulmonary responses after exposure to sulfur and nitrogen mustards are well documented whereas the late pulmonary effects are not. With a novel focus on the immune system this paper investigate whether late phase pulmonary effects developed in rats exposed to the nitrogen mustard melphalan are linked to the acute responses and whether the reactions are genetically regulated. The DA rat strain was used to establish a lung exposure model. Five other inbred rat strains (PVG, PVG.1AV1, LEW, WF and F344) were compared within the model at selected time points. All rat strains displayed a biphasic pattern of leukocyte infiltration in the lungs, dominated by neutrophils 2 days after exposure and a second peak dominated by macrophages 29 days after exposure. The number of macrophages was higher in the DA rat compared with the other strains. The infiltration of lymphocytes in the lungs varied in both time of appearance and magnitude between strains. The quantity of collagen deposition in the lungs varied between strains at day 90; LEW and WF displayed high collagen content which coincided with an increased level of cytotoxic T cells. LEW further displayed an increased number of T helper cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the lungs. The results in this study suggest there is a link between the development of lung fibrosis and high cytotoxic cell responses and that there is a genetic influence, as there are variations in acute and late adverse reactions between rat strains in both timing and magnitude. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Applied Toxicology 04/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor