Probing the configurations of formamidopyrimidine lesions Fapy.dA and Fapy.dG in DNA using endonuclease IV.
ABSTRACT The formamidopyrimidines Fapy.dA and Fapy.dG are produced in DNA as a result of oxidative stress. These lesions readily epimerize in water, an unusual property for nucleosides. The equilibrium mixture slightly favors the beta-anomer, but the configurational status in DNA is unknown. The ability of endonuclease IV (Endo IV) to efficiently incise alpha-deoxyadenosine was used as a tool to determine the configuration of Fapy.dA and Fapy.dG in DNA. Endo IV incision of the C-nucleoside analogues of Fapy.dA was used to establish selectivity for the alpha-anomer. Incision of alpha-C-Fapy.dA follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m) = 144.0 +/- 7.5 nM, k(cat) = 0.58 +/- 0.21 min(-1)), but the beta-isomer is a poor substrate. Fapy.dA incision is considerably slower than that of alpha-C-Fapy.dA, and does not proceed to completion. Endo IV incision of Fapy.dA proceeds further upon rehybridization, suggesting that the lesion reequilibrates and that the enzyme preferentially cleaves duplex DNA containing alpha-Fapy.dA. The extent of Fapy.dA incision suggests that the lesion exists predominantly ( approximately 90%) as the beta-anomer in DNA. Endo IV incises Fapy.dG to less than 5% under comparable reaction conditions, suggesting that the lesion exists almost exclusively as its beta-anomer in DNA.
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ABSTRACT: Proper maintenance of the genome is of great importance. Consequently, damaged nucleotides are repaired through redundant pathways. We considered whether the genome is protected from formamidopyrimidine nucleosides (Fapy*dA, Fapy*dG) via a pathway distinct from the Escherichia coli guanine oxidation system. The formamidopyrimidines are produced in significant quantities in DNA as a result of oxidative stress and are efficiently excised by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. Previous reports suggest that the formamidopyrimidine nucleosides are substrates for endonucleases III and VIII, enzymes that are typically associated with pyrimidine lesion repair in E.coli. We investigated the possibility that Endo III and/or Endo VIII play a role in formamidopyrimidine nucleoside repair by examining Fapy*dA and Fapy*dG excision opposite all four native 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Endo VIII excises both lesions more efficiently than does Endo III, but the enzymes exhibit similar selectivity with respect to their action on duplexes containing the formamidopyrimidines opposite native deoxyribonucleotides. Fapy*dA is removed more rapidly than Fapy*dG, and duplexes containing purine nucleotides opposite the lesions are superior substrates compared with those containing formamidopyrimidine-pyrimidine base pairs. This dependence upon opposing nucleotide indicates that Endo III and Endo VIII do not serve as back up enzymes to formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase in the repair of formamidopyrimidines. When considered in conjunction with cellular studies [J. O. Blaisdell, Z. Hatahet and S. S. Wallace (1999) J. Bacteriol., 181, 6396-6402], these results also suggest that Endo III and Endo VIII do not protect E.coli against possible mutations attributable to formamidopyrimidine lesions.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2005; 33(10):3331-8. DOI:10.1093/nar/gki655 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fapy.dG (N(6)()-(2-deoxy-alpha,beta-d-erythropentofuranosyl)-2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine) is a modified purine lesion produced by a variety of DNA-damaging agents, which shows interesting biochemical properties. The previous method for synthesizing oligonucleotides containing Fapy.dG utilized a reverse dinucleotide phosphoramidite, which also required the synthesis of the appropriate reverse phosphoramidites. An improved method for synthesizing oligonucleotides containing Fapy.dG, which does not require reverse phosphoramidites, is described. Fapy.dG containing dinucleotide phosphoramidites containing 5'-thymidine (11a) or 5'-deoxycytidine (15) are prepared and employed in oligonucleotide synthesis. Oligonucleotide purity is assayed using the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and by ESI-MS.The Journal of Organic Chemistry 02/2005; 70(1):141-9. DOI:10.1021/jo048253o · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine of 2'-deoxyguanosine (FaPydG) is one of the major DNA lesions found after oxidative stress in cells. To clarify the base pairing and coding potential of this major DNA lesion with the aim to estimate its mutagenic effect, we prepared oligonucleotides containing a cyclopentane based analogue of the DNA lesion (cFaPydG). In addition, oligonucleotides containing the cyclopentane analogue of 2'-deoxyguanosine (cdG), and oligonucleotides containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were synthesized. The thermodynamic stability of duplexes containing these building blocks and all canonical counterbases were determined by concentration dependent melting-point measurements (van't Hoff plots). The data reveal that cFaPydG greatly destabilizes a DNA duplex (DeltaDeltaG degrees (298K) approximately 2-4 kcal mol(-1)). The optimal base pairing partner for the cFaPydG lesion is dC. Investigation of duplexes containing dG and cdG shows that the effect of substituting the deoxyribose by a cyclopentane moiety is marginal. The data also provide strong evidence that the FaPydG lesion is unable to form a base pair with dA. Our computational studies indicate that the syn-conformation required for base pairing with dA is energetically unfavorable. This is in contrast to 8-oxodG for which the syn-conformation represents the energetic minimum. Kinetic primer extension studies using S. cerevisiae Pol eta reveal that cFaPydG is replicated in an error-free fashion. dC is inserted 2-3 orders of magnitude more efficiently than dT or dA, showing that FaPydG is a lesion which retains the coding potential of dG. This is also in contrast to 8-oxodG, for which base pairing with dC and dA was established.Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2006; 127(51):18143-9. DOI:10.1021/ja0549188 · 11.44 Impact Factor