Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in the management of women with abnormal Pap smears. Experience of a colposcopy referral clinic.
ABSTRACT Several detailed algorithms for the appropriate use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in the management of women with abnormal Pap (Papanicolaou) smears have been launched, but their direct country-to-country adoption is difficult. This necessitates their testing in individual settings, which is ongoing in our colposcopy referral clinic.
A series of 224 consecutive women attending the clinic with the usual referral indications (ASC-US or higher in Pap) were examined by the conventional diagnostic tools (PAP smear, colposcopy, punch biopsy) and subjected to HPV testing and viral typing for both low-risk (L-R) and high-risk (H-R) types by nested PCR-based techniques. Predictors of the high-grade diagnostic categories were analysed using both univariate- and multivariate modelling, and the performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV) of all tests in detecting high-grade CIN were calculated.
In the PAP test, ASC-US smears were most common (37.9%), followed by low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (26.3%) and high-grade SIL (HSIL) (4.9%). Colposcopy was performed for 180 women, of whom 48.3% had a normal transformation zone (TZ), 40.6% had ATZ1 (abnormal TZ grade 1), and 5.6% had ATZ2. In biopsy (n = 71), 49.3% had CIN1, 5.6% CIN2, and 16.9% CIN3. The HPV test was positive in 64 (28.8%) women, more often in those aged < 35 years (p = 0.025). High-grade colposcopy (ATZ2) was significantly associated with HSIL in the Pap test (OR 20.5; 95% CI: 4.34-96.47), and with HPV test positivity (OR 6.37; 95% CI: 1.58-25.73). The most significant predictors of CIN3 were HSIL in the PAP, HPV test positivity, and high-grade colposcopy. HSIL and HPV test (for H-R types), but not colposcopy, retained their significance as independent predictors of CIN3 also in adjusted multivariate models: OR 88.27; 95% CI 4.17-1867.04, and OR 19.46; 95% CI 2.01-187.75, for the HSIL and H-R HPV test, respectively. Changing the cut-off level of the Pap test from ASC-US to HSIL increased the specificity of the test up to 96.4%, with the loss in sensitivity from 87.5% to 43.8%. Colposcopy (ATZ2) had 92% specificity, and NPV competing with that of the Pap test. The sensitivity of HPV test exceeds that of the Pap test at HSIL cut-off level, but the specificity of the PAP test is clearly superior.
Accurate predictors of significant cervical pathology (CIN3) are well defined, but the problem is the different performance of the diagnostic tools in clinical practice. A proficient combination of the tests is likely to result in the most satisfactory clinical practice in the management of women with abnormal Pap tests (MAPS).
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ABSTRACT: A cascade of molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), as a follow-up to Papanicolaou test screening, could eliminate unnecessary colposcopy. Tests based on detection of HPV E6 messenger RNA (mRNA) are already being used as screening tools, but there is a good biological rationale for expecting that an increase in the relative amounts of HPV E6 mRNA in cervical samples may better predict cancerous transformation. To compare some of the available diagnostic methods and our novel method of relative quantification (RQ) of HPV gene expression for the effective triage of women with abnormal results from Papanicolaou tests to colposcopy. Sensitivities, specificities, and likelihood ratios were calculated for repeat Papanicolaou test smears, HPV DNA polymerase chain reactions, HPV genotyping, HPV-16 E6 mRNA detection, and the RQ of HPV-16 E6 mRNA calibrated to cellular RNA and DNA levels and standardized to viral load. Human papillomavirus genotype in combination with a repeat Papanicolaou test can be used to categorize most women (96%) with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or higher for colposcopy while eliminating 44% of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 or less. The presence of HPV-16 E6 mRNA (P < .001) and RQ of HPV-16 E6 mRNA (P < .001) displayed significant median differences among the various grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Further testing of women who are positive for HPV-16 demonstrated that the RQ of E6 mRNA has diagnostic potential when combined with Papanicolaou testing in populations with higher disease prevalence. The RQ of HPV E6 mRNA and HPV genotype could be useful in a cascade of diagnostic testing designed to refer women with findings of cervical abnormalities for colposcopy or treatment while reducing triage numbers.Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 10/2009; 133(10):1577-86. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As a part of our search for oncogenic viruses as potential etiological agents in human malignancies, our studies on human papillomaviruses (HPV) were extended to analysis of the 3 polyomaviruses (SV40, BKV and JCV) in colorectal carcinomas. Archival tumour samples from 71 patients with colorectal cancer were analyzed for the sequences of SV40, BKV, JCV and HPV using PCR-based techniques. HPV genotypes were determined using sequencing and reverse blot hybridization (InnoLipa). Amplification of BKV and JCV with the primer pair PEP-1 and PEP-2 and subsequent restriction digestion of the amplified products with BamH I disclosed BKV in 6/66 (9%) of the samples, whereas none contained JCV. SV40 was amplified in 10/66 (15.1%) samples and confirmed by sequencing analysis. In pair-wise analysis for co-infections, the samples were significantly different in their BKV-JCV and JCV-SV40 status, in contrast to their BKV-SV40 co-infection status. HPV DNA was detected in 22/66 (33.3%) of the samples analysed with either the MY09/11 or SPF primer mix. Of these 22 HPV infections, 7 were single-type infections and 15 contained multiple HPV types. HPV detection or type distribution showed no relationship to the gender of the patients or histological grade of the tumour. HPV status was not significantly related to detection of BKV, JCV or SV40. Similarly, in pair-wise analysis for co-infections, the samples were significantly different in their status of HPV-BKV (p=0.0006), HPV-JCV (p=0.0001), and HPV-SV40 (p=0.019), implicating that HPV and the 3 polyomaviruses are rarely detected concomitantly in the same samples. Taking the known molecular mechanisms of action of these individual viruses, there is a chance that these viruses could alter the mechanisms of cell cycle control and inhibit apoptosis, thus potentially causing chromosomal instability and promoting colorectal oncogenesis.Anticancer research 01/2008; 28(2B):1405-10. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data have accumulated implicating the involvement of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in bronchial carcinogenesis. We recently described the presence of oncogenic HPV transcripts in non-small cell lung cancers. To investigate the role of oncogenic HPVs in lung carcinogenesis. The lung cell line A549 stably infected with HPV16E6, HPV16E7 and HPVE6/E7 constructs was used to investigate the protein profile changes associated with the expression of these oncogenes. Replicated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gels from uninfected and stably HPV16E6-, E7-, and E6/E7-infected A549 cells were compared for changes in protein profile. Protein identification was achieved by peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF-MS and nLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS peptide ladder sequencing. We identified 17 different polypeptides whose average normalized spot intensity was statistically significant (p < 0.05) and differed by 2-fold. Relationships between differentially expressed proteins and the HPV-induced infection mechanism have been clustered by knowledge-base database functional association network analysis. The impact of Hsp27, annexin III, annexin IV, Gp96 and TPT1 on the cellular response mechanism to HPV infection is presented and discussed.Respiration 12/2008; 77(4):427-39. · 2.92 Impact Factor