Utilization of enzymes for environmental applications.

Human Genome Sciences, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 5.1). 02/2004; 24(2-3):125-54. DOI: 10.1080/07388550490493726
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Enzymes are powerful tools that help sustain a clean environment in several ways. They are utilized for environmental purposes in a number of industries including agro-food, oil, animal feed, detergent, pulp and paper, textile, leather, petroleum, and specialty chemical and biochemical industry. Enzymes also help to maintain an unpolluted environment through their use in waste management. Recombinant DNA technology, protein engineering, and rational enzyme design are the emerging areas of research pertaining to environmental applications of enzymes. The future will also see the employment of various technologies including gene shuffling, high throughput screening, and nanotechnology. This article presents an overview of the enzymatic applications in pollution control and the promising research avenues in this area.

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    ABSTRACT: Wood decaying fungi were isolated from several forests in Andhra Pradesh, India and screened for their lignolytic activity. Eighty-five species were isolated and screened qualitatively by guaiacol plate assay and spectrophotometric enzyme assays were carried out to examine the production of laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase quantitatively. Eighty-three species formed the circular zones of reddish brown color while all the species showed positive result for lignolytic activities in quantitative estimation. Russula sp. showed the highest zone in guaiacol plate assay and also given highest laccase and manganese peroxidase activity followed by Schizophyllum sp. Fomes fomentarius showed highest lignin peroxidase activity. The importance of this study is to screen and select the potential wood decaying fungi for large scale lignolytic enzyme production, which will be very useful in biobleaching and biopulping of paper and rayon industries. KeywordsWood decay fungi–Lignolytic enzymes–Guaiacol assay–Laccase–Lignin peroxidase–Manganese peroxidase
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    ABSTRACT: Development of processes for the production of value added products (VAPs), such as biopesticides, microbial inoculants or industrial enzymes through biotransformation of raw or pre-treated wastewater sludge (WWS) has undergone a substantial progress over the last decade. WWS based VAPs are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, when WWS is used as a raw material for VAPs production, questions still remains on the persistence of organic pollutants within the biotransformed WWS, especially, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and the production of their toxic intermediates. WWS pre-treatment prior to biotransformation as well as the microbial strains used for biotransformation can possibly remove these organic pollutants. The literature findings concerning the impact of WWS pre-treatment and value added products on EDCs removal are reviewed in this paper. The microbial potential to degrade or detoxify EDCs and toxic intermediates concomitant with value-addition is also discussed. The concept of obtaining EDCs free-WWS based VAPs and simultaneously achieving the objective of pollution control is presented.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2009; 407(5):1471-88. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 01/2005; 4:431. · 0.57 Impact Factor


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