Article

Utilization of Enzymes for Environmental Applications

Human Genome Sciences, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 7.84). 02/2004; 24(2-3):125-54. DOI: 10.1080/07388550490493726
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Enzymes are powerful tools that help sustain a clean environment in several ways. They are utilized for environmental purposes in a number of industries including agro-food, oil, animal feed, detergent, pulp and paper, textile, leather, petroleum, and specialty chemical and biochemical industry. Enzymes also help to maintain an unpolluted environment through their use in waste management. Recombinant DNA technology, protein engineering, and rational enzyme design are the emerging areas of research pertaining to environmental applications of enzymes. The future will also see the employment of various technologies including gene shuffling, high throughput screening, and nanotechnology. This article presents an overview of the enzymatic applications in pollution control and the promising research avenues in this area.

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    • "into significance products has been enhanced in recent times (Pandey et al., 2000; Ahuja et al., 2004). The employment of microbial enzymes has found extensive purpose in various industrial applications. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current work was investigated on the production of Invertase under solidstate fermentation (SSF) through Aspergillus species, by utilizing peels of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) as a substrate. The maximum production of Invertase (7.95±0.1 U/ml) was attained by using Aspergillus niger with 1×106 spores/ml at 90% moisture content after incubation period of 72 h. Through ammonium sulphate precipitation the enzyme was purified about 1.42-fold. Invertase showed maximum thermal stability ranges from 20-70°C at a pH range (5.5 to 6.5) with utmost activity at pH 5.5 and 50°C. However, the enzyme was highly active at two different concentrations of sucrose that is, 0.1 and 0.5 M respectively, but it indicates less activity at glycerol. While the enzyme was completely repressed by Hg2+ (1 mM) and slightly enthused by Co2+ and Na+ at the similar application.
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    • "Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Bacillus are widely appreciated as industrial workhorses for the production of various enzymes owing to their ability of secreting proteins into the extracellular medium [1]. Among the huge number of commercial enzymes, proteases are of great importance for their extensive applications in detergent , tanning, food processing, silk degumming, medical diagnosis, bioconversion, waste treatment, and peptide synthesis [2] [3] [4] [5]. Currently, proteases have accounted for up to 60% of the total enzyme sales in the global market, in which alkaline proteases represent the largest portion [6]. "
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    • "Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Bacillus are widely appreciated as industrial workhorses for the production of various enzymes owing to their ability of secreting proteins into the extracellular medium [1]. Among the huge number of commercial enzymes, proteases are of great importance for their extensive applications in detergent , tanning, food processing, silk degumming, medical diagnosis, bioconversion, waste treatment, and peptide synthesis [2] [3] [4] [5]. Currently, proteases have accounted for up to 60% of the total enzyme sales in the global market, in which alkaline proteases represent the largest portion [6]. "
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