Keratins and skin disorders
ABSTRACT The association of keratin mutations with genetic skin fragility disorders is now one of the best-established examples of cytoskeleton disorders. It has served as a paradigm for many other diseases and has been highly informative for the study of intermediate filaments and their associated components, in helping to understand the functions of this large family of structural proteins. The keratin diseases have shown unequivocally that, at least in the case of the epidermal keratins, a major function of intermediate filaments is to provide physical resilience for epithelial cells. This review article reflects on the variety of phenotypes arising from mutations in keratins and the reasons for this variation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ellen Birgitte Lane, May 29, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Joachim L. Schultze
Dataset: J Cell Sci-2012-Roth-5269-79
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ABSTRACT: Keratins are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are increasingly being recognised for their diverse cellular functions. Here we report the consequences of germ line inactivation of Keratin 76 (Krt76) in mice. Homozygous disruption of this epidermally expressed gene causes neonatal skin flaking, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, impaired wound healing, and death prior to 12 weeks of age. We show that this phenotype is associated with functionally defective tight junctions that are characterised by mislocalization of the integral protein CLDN1. We further demonstrate that KRT76 interacts with CLDN1 and propose that this interaction is necessary to correctly position CLDN1 in tight junctions. The mislocalization of CLDN1 has been associated in various dermopathies, including the inflammatory disease, psoriasis. These observations establish a previously unknown connection between the intermediate filament cytoskeleton network and tight junctions and showcase Krt76 null mice as a possible model to study aberrant tight junction driven skin diseases.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004706. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004706 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nodular melanoma is one of the most life threatening tumors with still poor therapeutic outcome. Similarly to other tumors, permissive microenvironment is essential for melanoma progression. Features of this microenvironment are arising from molecular crosstalk between the melanoma cells (MC) and the surrounding cell populations in the context of skin tissue. Here, we study the effect of melanoma cells on human primary keratinocytes (HPK). Presence of MC is as an important modulator of the tumor microenvironment and we compare it to the effect of nonmalignant lowly differentiated cells also originating from neural crest (NCSC). Comparative morphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis of epidermis surrounding nodular melanoma (n = 100) was performed. Data were compared to results of transcriptome profiling of in vitro models, in which HPK were co-cultured with MC, normal human melanocytes, and NCSC, respectively. Differentially expressed candidate genes were verified by RT-qPCR. Biological activity of candidate proteins was assessed on cultured HPK. Epidermis surrounding nodular melanoma exhibits hyperplastic features in 90% of cases. This hyperplastic region exhibits aberrant suprabasal expression of keratin 14 accompanied by loss of keratin 10. We observe that MC and NCSC are able to increase expression of keratins 8, 14, 19, and vimentin in the co-cultured HPK. This in vitro finding partially correlates with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia observed in melanoma biopsies. We provide evidence of FGF-2, CXCL-1, IL-8, and VEGF-A participation in the activity of melanoma cells on keratinocytes. We conclude that the MC are able to influence locally the differentiation pattern of keratinocytes in vivo as well as in vitro. This interaction further highlights the role of intercellular interactions in melanoma. The reciprocal role of activated keratinocytes on biology of melanoma cells shall be verified in the future.