Neural crest stem cells undergo multilineage differentiation in developing peripheral nerves to generate endoneurial fibroblasts in addition to Schwann cells.

Department of Internal Medicine, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0934, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 12/2004; 131(22):5599-612. DOI: 10.1242/dev.01429
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) persist in peripheral nerves throughout late gestation but their function is unknown. Current models of nerve development only consider the generation of Schwann cells from neural crest, but the presence of NCSCs raises the possibility of multilineage differentiation. We performed Cre-recombinase fate mapping to determine which nerve cells are neural crest derived. Endoneurial fibroblasts, in addition to myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells, were neural crest derived, whereas perineurial cells, pericytes and endothelial cells were not. This identified endoneurial fibroblasts as a novel neural crest derivative, and demonstrated that trunk neural crest does give rise to fibroblasts in vivo, consistent with previous studies of trunk NCSCs in culture. The multilineage differentiation of NCSCs into glial and non-glial derivatives in the developing nerve appears to be regulated by neuregulin, notch ligands, and bone morphogenic proteins, as these factors are expressed in the developing nerve, and cause nerve NCSCs to generate Schwann cells and fibroblasts, but not neurons, in culture. Nerve development is thus more complex than was previously thought, involving NCSC self-renewal, lineage commitment and multilineage differentiation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schwann cells (SCs), olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), and central nervous system Schwann cell-like glia (SG) represent a group of nerve growth factor receptor p75 (NGFR)-positive cells, originating from different tissues. Because of their pro-regenerative capacities, these cells are subjects in experimental transplantation-based therapies of spinal cord trauma. The objective of this study was to compare the transcriptomes of uninfected and canine distemper virus-infected OECs, SCs, SG and fibroblasts (FBs) derived from four beagle dogs and cultured under identical conditions in vitro, employing canine genome 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). Here, we observed a complete lack of transcriptional differerences between OECs and SG, a high similarity of OECs/SG to SCs, and a marked difference of SCs and OECs/SG towards FBs. Differentially expressed genes possibly involved in the maintenance of cell type-specific identity included an up-regulation of HOXD8 and HOXC4 in SCs, and an up-regulation of CNTNAP2 and EFEMP1 in OECs/SG. We identified cell type-specific biomarkers employing supervised clustering with a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm and correlation-based feature selection. Thereby AQP1 and SCRG1 were predicted to be the most powerful biomarkers distinguishing SCs from OECs/SG. Immunofluorescence confirmed a higher expression of SCRG1 in OECs and SG, and conversely a higher expression of AQP1 in SCs in vitro. Furthermore, canine and murine olfactory nerves showed SCRG1-positive, AQP1-negative OECs and/or axons, whereas sciatic nerves displayed multifocal non-myelinated, AQP1-positive, SCRG1-negative cells. Conclusively, OECs/SG are suggested to be a uniform cell type differing only in the tissue of origin and highly related to SCs. GLIA 2014.
    Glia 05/2014; 62(10). · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: All vertebrate peripheral nerves connect the central nervous system (CNS) with targets in the periphery and are composed of axons, layers of ensheathing glia and connective tissue. Although the structure of these conduits is well established, very little is known about the origin and developmental roles of some of their elements. One understudied component, the perineurium, ensheaths nerve fascicles and is a component of the blood-nerve-barrier. In zebrafish, the motor nerve perineurium is composed of CNS-derived nkx2.2a+ perineurial glia, which establish the motor exit point (MEP) during development. To determine if mouse perineurial cells also originate within the CNS and perform a similar function, we created a Nkx2.2:EGFP transgenic reporter line. Results: In conjunction with RNA expression analysis and antibody labeling, we observed Nkx2.2+ cells along peripheral motor nerves at all stages of development and in adult tissue. Additionally, in mice lacking Nkx2.2, we demonstrate that Nkx2.2+ perineurial glia are essential for motor nerve development and Schwann cell differentiation. Conclusions: Our studies reveal that a subset of mouse perineurial cells are CNS-derived, express Nkx2.2 and are essential for motor nerve development. This work highlights an under-appreciated but essential contribution of CNS-derived cells to the development of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS). Developmental Dynamics, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Developmental Dynamics 06/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism during cell differentiation remains poorly understood. This study isolated neural crest stem cells from human hair follicles and induced them to differentiate into Schwann cells. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that microRNA (miR)-21 expression was gradually increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells. After transfection with the miR-21 agonist (agomir-21), the differentiation capacity of neural crest stem cells was enhanced. By contrast, after transfection with the miR-21 antagonist (antagomir-21), the differentiation capacity was attenuated. Further study results showed that SOX-2 was an effective target of miR-21. Without compromising SOX2 mRNA expression, miR-21 can down-regulate SOX protein expression by binding to the 3'-UTR of miR-21 mRNA. Knocking out the SOX2 gene from the neural crest stem cells significantly reversed the antagomir-21 inhibition of neural crest stem cells differentiating into Schwann cells. The results suggest that miR-21 expression was increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells and miR-21 promoted the differentiation through down-regulating SOX protein expression by binding to the 3'-UTR of SOX2 mRNA.
    Neural Regeneration Research 04/2014; 9(8):828-36. · 0.23 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 15, 2014