Effects of thermal food processing on the chemical structure and toxicity of fumonisin mycotoxins.

Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.31). 10/2004; 48(4):255-69. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200400033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods. They are toxic to animals and at least one analogue, fumonisin B1, is carcinogenic to rodents. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer and possibly neural tube defects in some heavily exposed populations. It is therefore important to minimize exposures in these populations. Cleaning corn to remove damaged or moldy kernels reduces fumonisins in foods while milling increases their concentration in some and reduces their concentration in other products. Fumonisins are water-soluble and nixtamalization (cooking in alkaline water) lowers the fumonisin content of food products if the cooking liquid is discarded. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures ( > or = 190 degrees C) also reduces fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. However, the chemical fate of fumonisins in baked, fried, and extruded foods is not well understood and it is not known if the reduced concentrations result from thermal decomposition of fumonisins or from their binding to proteins, sugars or other compounds in food matrices. These possibilities might or might not be beneficial depending upon the bioavailability and inherent toxicity of decomposition products or the degree to which bound fumonisins are released in the gastrointestinal tract. In this review the affects of cooking and processing on the concentration and chemical structure of fumonisins as well as the toxicological consequences of known and likely fumonisin reaction products are discussed.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is no evidence yet for the occurrence of N-fatty acylated fumonisin derivatives in retail fried corn foods. Here, we developed a method for their determination based on their conversion to HFB1, and carried out recovery tests. Food was extracted with hexane and chloroform, followed by cleanup with Bond Elut silica SPE, KOH hydrolysis, and OASIS HLB column cleanup. N-Fatty acyl HFB1 appears to be much effectively recovered (72-85%) compared to N-fatty acyl FB1 (52-62%). A sample of tortilla chips, among 38 samples of alkali-processed corn foods analyzed, was found to give rise to a detectable level of HFB1 (23 ng/g, equivalent to 29 or 40 ng/g HFB1 from N-fatty acyl fumonisin, when corrected for average recoveries of N-fatty acyl HFB1 and FB1, respectively), demonstrating the first finding on the occurrence of N-fatty acyl fumonisins in retail fried corn foods.
    Food science and biotechnology 02/2013; 22(s):147-152. · 0.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of partially hydrolyzed fumonisins (PHFB1 and PHFB2) and hydrolyzed fumonisins (HFB1 and HFB2) by chemical hydrolysis of pure fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) is reported together with the isolation and characterization by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS). Two structural isomers of partially hydrolyzed forms of FB1 and FB2 were identified, namely PHFB1a and PHFB1b and PHFB2a and PHFB2b. Reaction yields were 21% for PHFB1 (sum of the two isomers), 52% for HFB1, 31% for PHFB2 (sum of the two isomers) and 30% for HFB2. Purity of each isolated compound was >98%.An LC–HRMS method for the simultaneous determination of fumonisins and their partially and totally hydrolyzed derivatives was applied to 24 naturally contaminated samples of maize and maize-based products. The majority of samples (18 out of 24) were contaminated with fumonisins B1 and B2. Fumonisins co-occurred with both partially hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed fumonisins in four nixtamalized samples (three masa flours and one tortilla chips). Co-occurrence of fumonisins with partially hydrolyzed fumonisins was also recorded in one sample of maize kernels and four samples of maize-based products (i.e. maize meal, cous-cous, corn-cakes and cornflakes). Mycotoxins levels ranged from 60 to 5700 µg/kg for fumonisins (sum of FB1 and FB2), from 10 to 210 µg/kg for partially hydrolyzed fumonisins (sum of PHFB1 and PHFB2) and from 30 to 200 µg/kg for hydrolyzed fumonisins (sum of HFB1 and HFB2). This is the first report of the isolation of PHFB2 and the co-occurrence of FB1, FB2, PHFB1, PHFB2, HFB1 and HFB2 in maize products. Considering the growing use of nixtamalized and maize-based products, the monitoring of fumonisins and their partially and totally hydrolyzed forms in these products may represent an important contributing factor in evaluating the relevant human risk exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 04/2014; 49(4). · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed remain present in the plant tissue but are currently neither routinely screened for in food nor regulated by legislation, thus they may be considered masked. Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusaric acid) are prone to metabolisation or binding by plants, but transformation of other mycotoxins by plants (ochratoxin A, patulin, destruxins) has also been described. Toxicological data are scarce, but several studies highlight the potential threat to consumer safety from these substances. In particular, the possible hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins back to their toxic parents during mammalian digestion raises concerns. Dedicated chapters of this article address plant metabolism as well as the occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food, analytical aspects for their determination, toxicology and their impact on stakeholders.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 10/2012; · 4.31 Impact Factor


Available from