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Effects of thermal food processing on the chemical structure and toxicity of fumonisin mycotoxins

Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.91). 09/2004; 48(4):255-69. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200400033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods. They are toxic to animals and at least one analogue, fumonisin B1, is carcinogenic to rodents. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer and possibly neural tube defects in some heavily exposed populations. It is therefore important to minimize exposures in these populations. Cleaning corn to remove damaged or moldy kernels reduces fumonisins in foods while milling increases their concentration in some and reduces their concentration in other products. Fumonisins are water-soluble and nixtamalization (cooking in alkaline water) lowers the fumonisin content of food products if the cooking liquid is discarded. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures ( > or = 190 degrees C) also reduces fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. However, the chemical fate of fumonisins in baked, fried, and extruded foods is not well understood and it is not known if the reduced concentrations result from thermal decomposition of fumonisins or from their binding to proteins, sugars or other compounds in food matrices. These possibilities might or might not be beneficial depending upon the bioavailability and inherent toxicity of decomposition products or the degree to which bound fumonisins are released in the gastrointestinal tract. In this review the affects of cooking and processing on the concentration and chemical structure of fumonisins as well as the toxicological consequences of known and likely fumonisin reaction products are discussed.

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    • "Potential exposure to modified mycotoxins due to their presence in food and feed raises concern that modified mycotoxins may pose an additional risk to human and animal health. While conjugated and matrix-associated mycotoxins may be cleaved by the gut microflora (e.g., DON-3-Glc→DON, Nagl et al. 2012) or endogenous digestive enzymes (e.g., fumonisins bound to starch→fumonisins, Humpf and Voss 2004) to the parent compound and thus add to the systemic exposure and toxicity of the free mycotoxin, other modified mycotoxins may be less, equally or even more toxic than their parent compound. To understand the toxicological relevance and contribution of modified mycotoxins to the overall health risk resulting from dietary intake of mycotoxins, it is thus critical to assess the bioavailability and toxic potential of Mycotoxin Res modified mycotoxins. "
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    ABSTRACT: As the term "masked mycotoxins" encompasses only conjugated mycotoxins generated by plants and no other possible forms of mycotoxins and their modifications, we hereby propose for all these forms a systematic definition consisting of four hierarchic levels. The highest level differentiates the free and unmodified forms of mycotoxins from those being matrix-associated and from those being modified in their chemical structure. The following lower levels further differentiate, in particular, "modified mycotoxins" into "biologically modified" and "chemically modified" with all variations of metabolites of the former and dividing the latter into "thermally formed" and "non-thermally formed" ones. To harmonize future scientific wording and subsequent legislation, we suggest that the term "modified mycotoxins" should be used in the future and the term "masked mycotoxins" to be kept for the fraction of biologically modified mycotoxins that were conjugated by plants.
    Mycotoxin Research 06/2014; 30(4). DOI:10.1007/s12550-014-0203-5
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    • "Mechanisms underlying these reductions are not well understood and could involve dissolution in cooking liquids, thermal decomposition or binding to food matrix components. [9] The alkaline-cooking (nixtamalization) of maize is an ancient art of cooking maize in a calcium hydroxide solution (lime) to produce a soft dough called masa. This process is widely used in Mexico and Central America. "
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of partially hydrolyzed fumonisins (PHFB1 and PHFB2) and hydrolyzed fumonisins (HFB1 and HFB2) by chemical hydrolysis of pure fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) is reported together with the isolation and characterization by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS). Two structural isomers of partially hydrolyzed forms of FB1 and FB2 were identified, namely PHFB1a and PHFB1b and PHFB2a and PHFB2b. Reaction yields were 21% for PHFB1 (sum of the two isomers), 52% for HFB1, 31% for PHFB2 (sum of the two isomers) and 30% for HFB2. Purity of each isolated compound was >98%.An LC–HRMS method for the simultaneous determination of fumonisins and their partially and totally hydrolyzed derivatives was applied to 24 naturally contaminated samples of maize and maize-based products. The majority of samples (18 out of 24) were contaminated with fumonisins B1 and B2. Fumonisins co-occurred with both partially hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed fumonisins in four nixtamalized samples (three masa flours and one tortilla chips). Co-occurrence of fumonisins with partially hydrolyzed fumonisins was also recorded in one sample of maize kernels and four samples of maize-based products (i.e. maize meal, cous-cous, corn-cakes and cornflakes). Mycotoxins levels ranged from 60 to 5700 µg/kg for fumonisins (sum of FB1 and FB2), from 10 to 210 µg/kg for partially hydrolyzed fumonisins (sum of PHFB1 and PHFB2) and from 30 to 200 µg/kg for hydrolyzed fumonisins (sum of HFB1 and HFB2). This is the first report of the isolation of PHFB2 and the co-occurrence of FB1, FB2, PHFB1, PHFB2, HFB1 and HFB2 in maize products. Considering the growing use of nixtamalized and maize-based products, the monitoring of fumonisins and their partially and totally hydrolyzed forms in these products may represent an important contributing factor in evaluating the relevant human risk exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Mass Spectrometry 04/2014; 49(4). DOI:10.1002/jms.3342 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "It is likely that these conjugates will be hydrolysed following ingestion thus increasing exposure to the precursor toxin. There is also evidence that ochratoxin A and fumonisins are conjugated by plants (Berthiller et al., 2007) and fumonisins may also be conjugated with sugars and proteins during food processing (Humpf and Voss, 2004). Berthiller et al. (2009) have reviewed the formation and determination of conjugated mycotoxins. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fungi are ubiquitous and formation of mycotoxins can occur in all agricultural commodities under appropriate field or storage conditions throughout the animal feed supply chain. In this increasingly complex area, the salient features of a fungal growth and mycotoxin production are outlined with strategies to mitigate their accumulation. Overall, there are a number of approaches that can be taken to minimise mycotoxin contamination in animal feeds and these involve prevention of fungal growth and therefore mycotoxin formation, and strategies to reduce or eliminate mycotoxins from contaminated commodities, especially feed additives. The major problem associated with mycotoxin contaminated animal feed is not acute disease episodes but low level toxin ingestion which may cause an array of metabolic disturbances resulting in poor animal productivity. In studies with pigs and poultry it has been shown that low level mycotoxin intake can result in reduced feed intake, poor growth rate, lower egg production, changes in carcass quality, reduced fertility and hatchability of eggs and immunosuppression. It is concluded that mycotoxins constitute a significant problem for the animal feed industry and an ongoing risk to feed supply security.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 04/2012; 173(s 1–2):134–158. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.12.014 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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