Effects of thermal food processing on the chemical structure and toxicity of fumonisin mycotoxins.

Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.31). 10/2004; 48(4):255-69. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200400033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods. They are toxic to animals and at least one analogue, fumonisin B1, is carcinogenic to rodents. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer and possibly neural tube defects in some heavily exposed populations. It is therefore important to minimize exposures in these populations. Cleaning corn to remove damaged or moldy kernels reduces fumonisins in foods while milling increases their concentration in some and reduces their concentration in other products. Fumonisins are water-soluble and nixtamalization (cooking in alkaline water) lowers the fumonisin content of food products if the cooking liquid is discarded. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures ( > or = 190 degrees C) also reduces fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. However, the chemical fate of fumonisins in baked, fried, and extruded foods is not well understood and it is not known if the reduced concentrations result from thermal decomposition of fumonisins or from their binding to proteins, sugars or other compounds in food matrices. These possibilities might or might not be beneficial depending upon the bioavailability and inherent toxicity of decomposition products or the degree to which bound fumonisins are released in the gastrointestinal tract. In this review the affects of cooking and processing on the concentration and chemical structure of fumonisins as well as the toxicological consequences of known and likely fumonisin reaction products are discussed.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is no evidence yet for the occurrence of N-fatty acylated fumonisin derivatives in retail fried corn foods. Here, we developed a method for their determination based on their conversion to HFB1, and carried out recovery tests. Food was extracted with hexane and chloroform, followed by cleanup with Bond Elut silica SPE, KOH hydrolysis, and OASIS HLB column cleanup. N-Fatty acyl HFB1 appears to be much effectively recovered (72-85%) compared to N-fatty acyl FB1 (52-62%). A sample of tortilla chips, among 38 samples of alkali-processed corn foods analyzed, was found to give rise to a detectable level of HFB1 (23 ng/g, equivalent to 29 or 40 ng/g HFB1 from N-fatty acyl fumonisin, when corrected for average recoveries of N-fatty acyl HFB1 and FB1, respectively), demonstrating the first finding on the occurrence of N-fatty acyl fumonisins in retail fried corn foods.
    Food science and biotechnology 02/2013; 22(s):147-152. · 0.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hidden fumonisins have received great attention in the last years as they have been frequently found in maize products in addition to the free forms. Several papers have shown that interaction with macromolecular components such as protein and starch is at the base of the phenomenon: although the nature of the interaction (covalent or not) is still not clarified, the occurrence of hidden forms is generally revealed by the application of an alkaline hydrolysis procedure. In this study, an in vitro digestion model has been applied to raw maize to evaluate the possible release of hidden fumonisins under gastrointestinal conditions. Upon digestion of the food matrix, an increased amount of total detectable fumonisins was observed in comparison with the analysis on the nondigested matrix, an amount even higher than that calculated through the application of the hydrolysis procedure. Besides the analytical issues, our data have serious implications, since consumers may be exposed to a systematic higher risk than that estimated by conventional techniques.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2010; 58(22):12042-7. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and commonly contaminate maize and maize products worldwide. Fumonisins are rodent carcinogens and have been associated with human esophageal cancer. However, the lack of a valid exposure biomarker has hindered both the assessment of human exposure and the evaluation of disease risk. A sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure urinary fumonisin B1 (FB1) following extraction on Oasis MAX cartridges was established and applied to urine samples from women in a cohort recruited in Morelos County, Mexico. Urinary FB1 was compared with dietary information on tortilla consumption. FB1 recovery in spiked samples averaged 94% as judged by deuterium-labeled FB1 internal standard. Urinary FB1 was determined in 75 samples from women selected based on low, medium, or high consumption of maize-based tortillas. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urinary FB1 was 35.0 (18.8-65.2), 63.1 (36.8-108.2), and 147.4 (87.6-248.0) pg/mL and the frequency of samples above the detection limit (set at 20 pg FB1/mL urine) was 45%, 80%, and 96% for the low, medium, and high groups, respectively. Women with high intake had a 3-fold higher average FB1 levels compared with the "low intake" group (F = 7.3; P = 0.0015). Urinary FB1 was correlated with maize intake (P(trend) = 0.001); the correlation remained significant after adjusting for age, education, and place of residence. This study suggests that measurement of urinary FB1 is sufficiently sensitive for fumonisin exposure assessment in human populations and could be a valuable tool in investigating the associated health effects of exposure.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 04/2008; 17(3):688-94. · 4.56 Impact Factor


Available from