Telomere biology: a new player in the end zone.

Cancer Research Unit, Children's Medical Research Institute, 214 Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia.
Current Biology (Impact Factor: 9.92). 11/2004; 14(20):R901-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.09.075
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Yet another protein has been added to the crowd of players found at the ends of chromosomes. Known variously as PTOP, PIP1 or TINT1, this negative regulator of telomere length connects some of the key proteins already known to be present - TRF1, TIN2, POT1, and TRF2 - and adds even more complexity to telomere protein interactions.

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    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.03.096 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ends of chromosoms, telomeres are bound with a number of proteins which protect and stabilize telomeres against degredation, end to end fusion and aberrant recombinations. Telomeric DNA is bound of two groups of proteins, which are double-stranded telomeric DNA bindings proteins, and single stranded telomeric binding proteins. Among telomere binding proteins, protections of telomere 1 protein is a single stranded telomere binding proteins and suggested to be a significant player for telomere elongation and has an association with an enzyme called as telomerase which is an intrinsic reverse transcriptase. Telomerase synthesizes hexameric telomeric repeats onto the chromosomes thereby compansating telomere loss in immortal cells, such as tumor cells, whereas telomeres are shorthened with each division in normal cells. PCR-based TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol) assay is a very sensitive assay for the detection of enzymatic activity of telomerase even if a few numbers of cancerous cells are available. The association between telomerase activity and hPOT1 expression in colorectal cancer is still unclear. Protein extraction was performed from specimens of matched normal and colorectal cancer specimens. Protein concentrations were determined by Bradford assay. Optimized protein concentrations were used for TRAP Assay. TRAP products were seperated by vertical gel electrophoresis on 12.5% polyacrylamide gels and visualized by silver staining. Gene expression of hPOT1 was determined by qPCR analysis. The results demonstrated that all tumor tissues were telomerase positive whereas all corresponding normal tissue was telomerase negative. Among clinicopathological findings, telomerase activity was found to be associated with stage, histology, localization, distant metastasis and lymph node metastasis of tumor in the current study. Although all of the clinicopathological findings differed in the expression of hPOT1 compared to normal tissues, they did not differ from each other significantly, except side of tumor and lymph node metastasis. Telomerase activity and hPOT1 gene expression may serve as a promising tumor marker for colorectal cancer and there is a close association between the enzymatic activty of telomerase and the expression of human protection of telomere 1 gene.
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    ABSTRACT: PinX1 was originally identified as a Pin2/TRF1-interacting protein that suppresses telomerase activity via its telomerase inhibitor domain (TID) and regulates the nucleolar localization of TRF1 in telomerase-positive cells. In addition to its telomeric localization, PinX1 can be found in the nucleoli of human cells. Our recent studies have shown that PinX1 localizes to the chromosome periphery and kinetochores in mitosis. Depletion of PinX1 results in lagging chromosomes in mitosis and micronuclei in interphase. However, less is known about the post-translational modification of PinX1 in mitosis. Here, we show that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a novel interacting protein of PinX1. Plk1 interacts with and phosphorylates PinX1 in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of Plk1 promotes protein turnover of PinX1, a process that depends on ubiquitin-associated proteasomal degradation. Depletion of Plk1 using siRNA increases the stability of PinX1 at protein level in mitosis. Moreover, Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of PinX1 at five phosphorylation sites is essential for its Plk1-induced degradation. These findings suggest that Plk1 may negatively regulate the stability of PinX1 by mitotic phosphorylation.
    European journal of cell biology 10/2010; 89(10):748-56. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcb.2010.05.005 · 3.70 Impact Factor

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