Removal of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, beta-blockers, trimethoprim and triclosan in conventional wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries and their discharge to the aquatic environment.
ABSTRACT The removal of commonly used pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim) and a biocide (triclosan) in operating wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries has been studied. Under normal operating conditions the acidic drugs and triclosan were partially removed with removal rates varying from ca. 20 to >95%. The highest removal rate was found for ibuprofen and triclosan (>90%) followed by naproxen (80%), gemfibrozil (55%) and diclofenac (39%). Ibuprofen undergoes an oxidative transformation to corresponding hydroxy- and carboxy-metabolites, which contributes to its high removal rate. Disturbances in the activated sludge process resulted in lower removal rates for all acidic drugs, mostly for diclofenac (<10% removed) but also for ibuprofen (<60% removed). The treatment of wastewaters by activated sludge usually did not result in any practical removal (<10%) of neutral carbamazepine or basic atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim. The removal rates of the investigated drugs and triclosan are discussed in terms of mechanisms responsible for their removal. Discharges of carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, naproxen, triclosan and trimethoprim from WWTPs to the aquatic environment, expressed as the average concentration in the effluent and the daily discharged quantity per person served by WWTPs were assessed.
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ABSTRACT: ISBN: 978-3-942768-04-7 URN urn:nbn:de:gbv:830-tubdok-11351 In the world of sanitation new approaches for solutions for tomorrow are becoming mo-re and more relevant. Since volume flow of urine is small but rich in nutrients compared to other wastewater flows, the separate collection and treatment of urine allows an effective resource recovery especially of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorous. Additionally treatment efforts for other wastewater flows can be reduced and a large fraction of micropollutants e.g. pharmaceutical residues is extracted and can be reduced by separate collection and treatment of urine. The current and future potential of separate collection and treatment of urine in an ur-ban context was evaluated by an analysis of collectable volume and concentrations of urine from collection tanks of public urinals in the city of Hamburg, by modeling a transportation system, and by testing different treatment options for nutrient recovery and reduction of pharmaceutical residues in laboratory and pilot scale. The results of the analysis of collection, the modeling of transport, and the testing of treatment options were combined to evaluate the Hamburg example regarding the feasibility of a separate collection and treatment of urine system. The findings of the analysis of collection tanks complement the existing data pool regarding real nutrient concentrations of source separated urine from public toilets. For design of the transport model, consolidated findings from solid waste management could be transferred to a urine collection and transport system, due to similar specific volumes. With the treatment methods, all objectives namely nutrient recovery, improvement of product handling, and reduction of pharmaceutical residues could be reached. In a basic system an evaluation of the competitiveness of a system for separate col-lected and treated urine could be demonstrated for those with high fractions of higher concentrated urine. Finally, the successful implementation of separate collection and treatment of urine in an urban context is dependent upon boundary conditions, in particular on objective of the existing or planned wastewater management concepts, on parameters such as costs and availability of competitive products, and on distances to agricultural areas with high nutrient demand. At appropriate boundary conditions, the separate collection and treatment of urine in densely populated areas is a promising detail in the context of new sustainable water and sanitation concepts.10/2011, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Otterpohl; Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch
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ABSTRACT: Photocatalysis is one of the most effective advanced oxidation processes to remove residual pharmaceuticals from the aquatic environment. β-blockers are the group of pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment and are showing potential risk to the aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This paper provides an overview of different photocatalytic procedures found in the literature for the abatement of β-blockers.Arabian Journal of Chemistry 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.10.044 · 2.68 Impact Factor