Removal of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, β-blockers, trimethoprim and triclosan in conventional wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries and their discharge to the aquatic environment. Water Sci Technol
ABSTRACT The removal of commonly used pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim) and a biocide (triclosan) in operating wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries has been studied. Under normal operating conditions the acidic drugs and triclosan were partially removed with removal rates varying from ca. 20 to >95%. The highest removal rate was found for ibuprofen and triclosan (>90%) followed by naproxen (80%), gemfibrozil (55%) and diclofenac (39%). Ibuprofen undergoes an oxidative transformation to corresponding hydroxy- and carboxy-metabolites, which contributes to its high removal rate. Disturbances in the activated sludge process resulted in lower removal rates for all acidic drugs, mostly for diclofenac (<10% removed) but also for ibuprofen (<60% removed). The treatment of wastewaters by activated sludge usually did not result in any practical removal (<10%) of neutral carbamazepine or basic atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim. The removal rates of the investigated drugs and triclosan are discussed in terms of mechanisms responsible for their removal. Discharges of carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, naproxen, triclosan and trimethoprim from WWTPs to the aquatic environment, expressed as the average concentration in the effluent and the daily discharged quantity per person served by WWTPs were assessed.
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- "These compounds are persistent against biological degradation and natural attenuation, and therefore, may remain in the environment for a long time. Conventional wastewater treatment using activated sludge (Paxeus, 2004) is not effective in removing these compounds completely. The promising technology for the treatment of wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals is advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (Dantas et al., 2011; Klavarioti et al., 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Photocatalysis is one of the most effective advanced oxidation processes to remove residual pharmaceuticals from the aquatic environment. β-blockers are the group of pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment and are showing potential risk to the aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This paper provides an overview of different photocatalytic procedures found in the literature for the abatement of β-blockers.Arabian Journal of Chemistry 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.10.044 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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- "Of the small number of studies that examined the effects of GEM and CBZ in fishes, most involved concentrations well above what would be considered environmentally relevant and most exposure were acute. Both GEM and CBZ have been detected in waste water effluent and surface waters with average effluent concentrations ranging from 0.84 to 4.76 g L −1 and 0.87 to 1.2 g L −1 , respectively (Andreozzi et al., 2003; Kolpin et al., 2002; Metcalfe et al., 2003; Paxéus, 2004; Petroví c et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2008). Like other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, CBZ and GEM enter receiving waters via waste water effluent discharge. "
ABSTRACT: In this study we explored how parental exposure to pharmaceuticals influences reproduction in offspring. Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 6 weeks to 10 μg L−1 of carbamazepine (CBZ) and gemfibrozil (GEM), two commonly prescribed drugs. Embryos were collected, reared in clean water until sexual maturity and then assessed for reproductive output, courtship, sperm function and organ histology. While 34% of the control pairs produced clutches, only 11% of the fish with CBZ exposed parents or 17% of the fish with GEM exposed parents produced clutches. Reciprocal crosses indicated that exposure in males had more profound reproductive effects. When a control F1 male was crossed with either a F1 female whose parents were CBZ or GEM exposed; no differences were observed in embryo production compared to controls. However, when a control F1 female was crossed with either a CBZ or GEM F1 male, 50% less embryos were produced. Male courtship was reduced in both CBZ and GEM F1 fish but the deficits in courtship displays were drug specific. Compared to control males, the sperm from GEM F1 males had shorter head lengths and midpieces whereas sperm from CBZ F1 males had longer midpeices. Although it remains unclear how specifically these morphological differences influenced sperm velocity, the sperm from GEM F1 males and from CBZ F1 males swam faster than the sperm of control F1 at 20s post activation. No significant differences were observed in the histology of the liver, kidney and gonads across treatment groups. These data are important as they show that chronic, low dose pharmaceutical exposure of parental fish is sufficient to cause significant reproductive effects in offspring.Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 06/2014; 151. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.01.016 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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- "In particular, Ferrari et al. (2003) ranked CBZ as the highest-risk compound for aquatic environments when compared to other PhCs, such as diclofenac and clofibric acid, and it has been classified as ''R52/53 Harmful to aquatic organisms and may cause long term adverse effects in the aquatic environment'' (European legislation on the classification and labeling of chemicals, 92/32/EEC), since it is present in municipal sewage-treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters and even in seawater, mainly due to its low (below 10 %) STP removal efficiency (Chen et al. 2006; Zhang et al. 2008) and incomplete biodegradation in both water bodies (Andreozzi et al. 2002; Stamatelatou et al. 2003; Zhou et al. 2009). High CBZ levels (6 300 ng L -1 ) were detected in WWTP effluents (Ternes 1998), as well as in surface waters (1,075 ng L -1 ) in Berlin, Germany (Heberer et al. 2002), while CBZ levels in municipal WWTP effluents from different Greek cities, such as Iraklion and Ioannina, were up to 1 lg L -1 (for further details see Ferrari et al. 2003; Paxéus 2004; Zhang et al. 2008; Kosma et al. 2010). Different species and cellular types are characterized by different sensitivity, metabolic pathways and protective responses against PhCs (Schmidt et al. 2011), a fact that should be taken into account when performing toxicological and ecotoxicological studies. "
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the pro-oxidant behavior of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) on the marine algal species Dunaliella tertiolecta and the immune defense-related hemocytes of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A phytotoxicity test, performed in a first step, showed a significant inhibition of the growth rate and the chlorophyll alpha (Chl-α) content in algae after exposure for 24 h to different concentrations of CBZ (1-200 mg L(-1)). On the other hand, the increased levels of lipid peroxidation products, such as MDA, measured in 24 h CBZ-treated cells were attenuated with time (48-96 h), followed by a significant recovery of both the algal growth rate and the Chl-α content in all cases. The latter could be related to the concomitant enhancement of total carotenoids in CBZ-treated algae with time, which in turn could protect algal growth and survival against CBZ-induced oxidative stress. On the other hand, the increased levels of cell death, superoxide anions ((·)O2 (-)), nitric oxides (NO, in terms of nitrites, NO2 (-)) and MDA content observed in mussel hemocytes exposed to environmentally relevant (0.01-1 μg L(-1)) and/or higher (10 and 100 μg L(-1)) concentrations of the drug, clearly indicate the ability of CBZ to induce oxidative effects on cells of non-target species, such as mussels, affecting thus their overall health status. The significant relationships occurred among the tested biological parameters in both bioassays, further reinforce CBZ-mediated pro-oxidant effects on species, widely used in ecotoxicological and toxicological studies and provide a more comprehensive view on its environmental fate and ecotoxicological risk evaluation.Ecotoxicology 08/2013; 22(8). DOI:10.1007/s10646-013-1108-3 · 2.50 Impact Factor