Alterations in subtelomeric tandem repeats during early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat.
ABSTRACT The genomic content of the subtelomeric repeated sequences Spelt1 and Spelt52 was studied by dot, Southern, and in situ hybridization in 11 newly synthesized amphiploids of Aegilops and Triticum, and data were compared with the parental plants. Spelt1 had reduced copy numbers in the first generation of three synthetic amphiploids, but two others did not change; Spelt52 was amplified in nine amphiploids and did not change in two. In the second allopolyploid generation, Spelt1 copy number did not change, whereas there was amplification of Spelt52 in some allopolyploids and decreases in others. Neither allopolyploidy level nor the direction of the cross affected the patterns of change in the newly synthesized amphiploids. Changes did not result from intergenomic recombination because similar alterations were noticed in allopolyploids with and without Ph1, a gene that suppresses homoeologous pairing. No differences in Spelt1 and Spelt52 tandem organization were found by Southern hybridization. The significance of these data are discussed in relation to the establishment of newly formed allopolyploids.
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ABSTRACT: Allopolyploidy (interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy) has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of angiosperms and can result in genomic, epigenetic and transcriptomic perturbations. We examine the immediate effects of allopolyploidy on repetitive DNA by comparing the genomes of synthetic and natural Nicotiana tabacum with diploid progenitors N. tomentosiformis (paternal progenitor) and N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor). Using next generation sequencing, a recently developed graph-based repeat identification pipeline, Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) we characterise two highly repetitive DNA sequences (NicCL3 and NicCL7/30). Analysis of two independent high-throughput DNA sequencing datasets indicates NicCL3 forms 1.6-1.9% of the genome in N. tomentosiformis, sequences that occur in multiple, discontinuous tandem arrays scattered over several chromosomes. Abundance estimates, based on sequencing depth, indicate NicCL3 is almost absent in N. sylvestris and has been dramatically reduced in copy number in the allopolyploid N. tabacum. Surprisingly elimination of NicCL3 is repeated in some synthetic lines of N. tabacum in their forth generation. The retroelement NicCL7/30, which occurs interspersed with NicCL3, is also under-represented but to a much lesser degree, revealing targeted elimination of the latter. Analysis of paired-end sequencing data indicates the tandem component of NicCL3 has been preferentially removed in natural N. tabacum, increasing the proportion of the dispersed component. This occurs across multiple blocks of discontinuous repeats and based on the distribution of nucleotide similarity among NicCL3 units, was concurrent with rounds of sequence homogenisation.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36963. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed "revolutionary" changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species' evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed.Genetics 11/2012; 192(3):763-74. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances have highlighted the ubiquity of whole-genome duplication (polyploidy) in angiosperms, although subsequent genome size change and diploidization (returning to a diploid-like condition) are poorly understood. An excellent system to assess these processes is provided by Nicotiana section Repandae, which arose via allopolyploidy (approximately 5 million years ago) involving relatives of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana obtusifolia. Subsequent speciation in Repandae has resulted in allotetraploids with divergent genome sizes, including Nicotiana repanda and Nicotiana nudicaulis studied here, which have an estimated 23.6% genome expansion and 19.2% genome contraction from the early polyploid, respectively. Graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence data enabled assessment of the global genome composition of these allotetraploids and their diploid progenitors. Unexpectedly, in both allotetraploids, over 85% of sequence clusters (repetitive DNA families) had a lower abundance than predicted from their diploid relatives; a trend seen particularly in low-copy repeats. The loss of high-copy sequences predominantly accounts for the genome downsizing in N. nudicaulis. In contrast, N. repanda shows expansion of clusters already inherited in high copy number (mostly chromovirus-like Ty3/Gypsy retroelements and some low-complexity sequences), leading to much of the genome upsizing predicted. We suggest that the differential dynamics of low- and high-copy sequences reveal two genomic processes that occur subsequent to allopolyploidy. The loss of low-copy sequences, common to both allopolyploids, may reflect genome diploidization, a process that also involves loss of duplicate copies of genes and upstream regulators. In contrast, genome size divergence between allopolyploids is manifested through differential accumulation and/or deletion of high-copy-number sequences.The Plant Journal 06/2013; 74(5). · 6.58 Impact Factor