Three Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP2B6 Gene in Japanese Individuals
ABSTRACT We sequenced all exons and exon-intron junctions of the CYP2B6 gene from 200 Japanese individuals. We found three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (1375A>G, 1427G>A and 1454A>T) causing amino acid substitutions (Met(459)Val, Gly(476)Asp and Gln(485)Leu in exon 9), respectively. The detected SNP was as follows: 1) SNP, 031226Hiratsuka01; GENE NAME, CYP2B6; ACCESSION NUMBER, AC023172; LENGTH, 25 base; 5'-CAGAACTTCTCCA/GTGGCCAGCCCCG-3'. 2) SNP, 031226Hiratsuka02; GENE NAME, CYP2B6; ACCESSION NUMBER, AC023172; LENGTH, 25 base; 5'-CCCAGGAGTGTGG/ATGTGGGCAAAAT-3'. 3) SNP, 031226Hiratsuka03; GENE NAME, CYP2B6; ACCESSION NUMBER, AC023172; LENGTH, 25 base; 5'-CCCCAACATACCA/TGATCCGCTTCCT-3'.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Masahiro Hiratsuka, Aug 28, 2015
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- "Some of these variations are rare, but many are common, with allele frequencies between 10% and almost 50%, depending on the population (Klein et al. 2005; Solus et al. 2004). Ethnic or racial inter-individual CYP2B6 polymorphism in various populations has been reported in Caucasians (Lang et al. 2001), Japanese (Hiratsuka et al. 2002and Hiratsuka et al. 2004), African-American-Hispanic (Lamba et al. 2003; Hesse et al. 2004), Korean (Cho et al. 2004), Mongolian (Davalkham et al. 2009), Spain (Novoa et al. 2005), and South Indians (Ramachandran et al. 2009), but not in North Indian population, and, hence, CYP2B6 was selected in this study. "
ABSTRACT: Identification of poor and rapid metabolizers for the category of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses of drugs metabolized by this enzyme. This study reports the prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers in North Indian population residing in the National Capital Territory. The prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers was determined in the target population for the category of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6 by measuring plasma bupropion, a drug metabolized by CYP2B6, and its metabolite. Bupropion (75 mg) was administered to 107 volunteers, and the drug (bupropion) and its metabolite (hydroxybupropion) were determined simultaneously by LCMS/MS in the plasma. CYP2B6 activity was measured as hydroxybupropion/bupropion ratio, and volunteers were categorized as rapid or poor metabolizers on the basis of cutoff value of log (hydroxybupropion/bupropion). Significant differences were observed between the mean metabolite/drug ratio of rapid metabolizers (Mean = 0.59) and poor metabolizers (Mean = 0.26) with p<0.0001. Results indicate that 20.56% individuals in the target population were poor metabolizers for the category of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6. Cutoff value defined in this study can be used as a tool for evaluating the status of CYP2B6 using bupropion as a probe drug. The baseline information would be clinically useful before administering the drugs metabolized by this isoform.SpringerPlus 10/2012; 1:34. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-1-34
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ABSTRACT: The zebrafish is an in vivo model system originally used to study development of vertebrates. Over the last years it has gained a more important role in studies focusing on diseases such as cancer and thrombosis. Platelets play an important role in thrombosis and therefore drugs inhibiting platelet enzymes and receptors are developed to prevent thrombosis. The most effective drugs inhibit the COX enzymes (aspirin) or the platelet activating receptor P2Y-12 (clopidogrel among others). Lack of clarity exists about the P2Y12 receptor. In T2DM patients, there is speculation that there is less inhibition by 16 antagonists. Also the current insight in P2Y12 signaling is limited to suppression of production of cAMP (a platelet inhibitor) and activation of protein kinase B/Rap1b (which stimulate aggregation). Aims of the thesis: (1) To evaluate the position of the zebrafish as a model system in research on platelet function and thrombus; (2) Discuss the main problems the currently most used anti-platelet drugs (aspirin and clopidogrel) possess; (3) To study the inhibition of the P2Y-12 receptor in diabetes patients and to demonstrate which secondary signalling molecules are activated by P2Y-12
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ABSTRACT: The oxazaphosphorines including cyclophosphamide (CPA), ifosfamide (IFO), and trofosfamide represent an important group of therapeutic agents due to their substantial antitumor and immuno-modulating activity. CPA is widely used as an anticancer drug, an immunosuppressant, and for the mobilization of hematopoetic progenitor cells from the bone marrow into peripheral blood prior to bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia, leukemia, and other malignancies. New oxazaphosphorines derivatives have been developed in an attempt to improve selectivity and response with reduced toxicity. These derivatives include mafosfamide (NSC 345842), glufosfamide (D19575, beta-D-glucosylisophosphoramide mustard), NSC 612567 (aldophosphamide perhydrothiazine), and NSC 613060 (aldophosphamide thiazolidine). This review highlights the metabolism and transport of these oxazaphosphorines (mainly CPA and IFO, as these two oxazaphosphorine drugs are the most widely used alkylating agents) and the clinical implications. Both CPA and IFO are prodrugs that require activation by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed 4-hydroxylation, yielding cytotoxic nitrogen mustards capable of reacting with DNA molecules to form crosslinks and lead to cell apoptosis and/or necrosis. Such prodrug activation can be enhanced within tumor cells by the CYP-based gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) approach. However, those newly synthesized oxazaphosphorine derivatives such as glufosfamide, NSC 612567 and NSC 613060, do not need hepatic activation. They are activated through other enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic pathways. For example, both NSC 612567 and NSC 613060 can be activated by plain phosphodiesterase (PDEs) in plasma and other tissues or by the high-affinity nuclear 3'-5' exonucleases associated with DNA polymerases, such as DNA polymerases and epsilon. The alternative CYP-catalyzed inactivation pathway by N-dechloroethylation generates the neurotoxic and nephrotoxic byproduct chloroacetaldehyde (CAA). Various aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the detoxification of oxazaphosphorine metabolites. The metabolism of oxazaphosphorines is auto-inducible, with the activation of the orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) being the major mechanism. Oxazaphosphorine metabolism is affected by a number of factors associated with the drugs (e.g., dosage, route of administration, chirality, and drug combination) and patients (e.g., age, gender, renal and hepatic function). Several drug transporters, such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1, MRP2, and MRP4) are involved in the active uptake and efflux of parental oxazaphosphorines, their cytotoxic mustards and conjugates in hepatocytes and tumor cells. Oxazaphosphorine metabolism and transport have a major impact on pharmacokinetic variability, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, toxicity, resistance, and drug interactions since the drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters involved are key determinants of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxazaphosphorines. A better understanding of the factors that affect the metabolism and transport of oxazaphosphorines is important for their optional use in cancer chemotherapy.Drug Metabolism Reviews 02/2005; 37(4):611-703. DOI:10.1080/03602530500364023 · 6.29 Impact Factor