Article

Folate intake and colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analytical approach

Cancer Research U.K., Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. <>
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.01). 02/2005; 113(5):825-8. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.20648
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adequate consumption of folate may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis of 7 cohort and 9 case-control studies that examined the association between folate consumption and colorectal cancer risk. In cohort studies, the association between folate consumption and colorectal cancer risk was stronger for dietary folate (folate from foods alone; relative risk for high vs. low intake = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.64-0.89) than for total folate (folate from foods and supplements; relative risk for high vs. low intake = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.81-1.11) and there was no significant heterogeneity between studies. There was significant heterogeneity between case-control studies. These results offer some support for the hypothesis that folate has a small protective effect against colorectal cancer but confounding by other dietary factors cannot be ruled out.

3 Followers
 · 
95 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Folate and its synthetic form, folic acid (FA), are essential vitamins for the regeneration of S-adenosyl methionine molecules, thereby maintaining adequate cellular methylation. The deregulation of DNA methylation is a contributing factor to carcinogenesis, as alterations in genetic methylation may contribute to stem cell reprogramming and dedifferentiation processes that lead to a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. Here, we investigate the potential effects of FA exposure on DNA methylation and colonosphere formation in cultured human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. We show for the first time that HCT116, LS174T, and SW480 cells grown without adequate FA demonstrate significantly impaired colonosphere forming ability with limited changes in CD133, CD166, and EpCAM surface expression. These differences were accompanied by concomitant changes to DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzyme expression and DNA methylation levels, which varied depending on cell line. Taken together, these results demonstrate an interaction between FA metabolism and CSC phenotype in vitro and help elucidate a connection between supplemental FA intake and CRC development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 03/2015; 3. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.02.002 · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the consequences in analyzing biological data from noisy sources, such as human subjects, is the sheer variability of experimentally irrelevant factors that cannot be controlled for. This holds true especially in metabolomics, the global study of small molecules in a particular system. While metabolomics can offer deep quantitative insight into the metabolome via easy-to-acquire biofluid samples such as urine and blood, the aforementioned confounding factors can easily overwhelm attempts to extract relevant information. This can mar potentially crucial applications such as biomarker discovery. As such, a new algorithm, called Selective Paired Ion Contrast (SPICA), has been developed with the intent of extracting potentially biologically relevant information from the noisiest of metabolomic datasets. The basic idea of SPICA is built upon redefining the fundamental unit of statistical analysis. Whereas the vast majority of algorithms analyze metabolomics data on a single-ion basis, SPICA relies on analyzing ion-pairs. A standard metabolomic data set is reinterpreted by exhaustively considering all possible ion-pair combinations. Statistical comparisons between sample groups are made only by analyzing the differences in these pairs, which may be crucial in situations where no single metabolite can be used for normalization. With SPICA, human urine data sets from patients undergoing total body irradiation (TBI), and from a colorectal cancer (CRC) relapse study were analyzed in a statistically rigorous manner not possible with conventional methods. In the TBI study, 3530 statistically significant ion-pairs were identified, from which numerous putative radiation specific metabolite-pair biomarkers that mapped to potentially perturbed metabolic pathways were elucidated. In the CRC study, SPICA identified 6461 statistically significant ion-pairs, several of which putatively mapped to folic acid biosynthesis, a key pathway in colorectal cancer. Utilizing support vector machines (SVMs), SPICA was also able to unequivocally outperform binary classifiers built from classical single-ion feature based SVMs.
    Analytical Chemistry 02/2015; DOI:10.1021/ac504012a · 5.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied the relationship between plasma total folate and folate vitamer concentrations [5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, pteroylglutamic acid (folic acid) and tetrahydrofolic acid] with overall survival after breast cancer diagnosis. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between folic acid supplement use with circulating total folate and folate vitamer concentrations. Participants were postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 498) with an average follow-up of 6.7 yr. Plasma total folate and folate vitamers were measured by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS in samples collected at or postdiagnosis. Cox proportional multivariate hazards models (controlled for stage, age at diagnosis, body mass index, parity, hormone replacement therapy use, treatment, alcohol use, folic acid use, and energy intake), were used to assess overall survival after breast cancer diagnosis. We found that the relative risk of dying for women with plasma total folate concentrations in the highest quartile was 59% lower (hazard ratio: 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.90) compared with the lowest quartile. Data on supplement use showed that women taking folic acid supplements had significantly higher circulating total folate and folate vitamer concentrations (P < 0.0001), suggesting that increased folate consumption through diet and/or supplementation may improve prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis.
    Nutrition and Cancer 02/2015; 67(3):1-7. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2015.1002623 · 2.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
13 Downloads
Available from
Nov 21, 2014