Partially overlapping expression of Gata2 and Gata3 during inner ear development.
ABSTRACT Gata2 and Gata3 belong to the Gata family of transcription factors in vertebrates that bind to a consensus "GATA" DNA sequence. The Gata3 gene is one of the earliest markers for the developing mouse inner ear. Ear morphogenesis is blocked in Gata3-deficient embryos, whereas nothing was known of the role of Gata2 in mouse inner ear. Here, we have compared the expression patterns of Gata2 and Gata3 during normal inner ear development and investigated their relationship in mice where either Gata3 or Gata2 has been inactivated. The expression of the two Gata genes is highly overlapping at embryonic day (E)10.5 but becomes increasingly distinct later. Whereas Gata2 is predominantly expressed in the dorsal vestibular system, Gata3 was detected mainly in the ventral cochlear duct and ganglion. No phenotypic abnormalities were observed in the inner ear of Gata2-/- embryos before lethality at E10.5 and Gata3 expression was unchanged. In contrast, a delay and strong reduction of Gata2 expression was detected in Gata3-/- otic epithelium.
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ABSTRACT: GATA-1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor believed to play an important role in gene regulation during the development of erythroid cells, megakaryocytes and mast cells. Other members of the GATA family, which can bind to the same DNA sequence motif, are co-expressed in several of these hemopoietic lineages, raising the possibility of overlap in function. To examine the specific roles of GATA-1 in hematopoietic cell differentiation, we have tested the ability of embryonic stem cells, carrying a targeted mutation in the X-linked GATA-1 gene, to contribute to various blood cell types when used to produce chimeric embryos or mice. Previously, we reported that GATA-1- mutant cells failed to contribute to the mature red blood cell population, indicating a requirement for this factor at some point in the erythroid lineage (L. Pevny et al., (1991) Nature 349, 257-260). In this study, we have used in vitro colony assays to identify the stage at which mutant erythroid cells are affected, and to examine the requirement for GATA-1 in other lineages. We found that the development of erythroid progenitors in embryonic yolk sacs was unaffected by the mutation, but that the cells failed to mature beyond the proerythroblast stage, an early point in terminal differentiation. GATA-1- colonies contained phenotypically normal macrophages, neutrophils and megakaryocytes, indicating that GATA-1 is not required for the in vitro differentiation of cells in these lineages. GATA-1- megakaryocytes were abnormally abundant in chimeric fetal livers, suggesting an alteration in the kinetics of their formation or turnover. The lack of a block in terminal megakaryocyte differentiation was shown by the in vivo production of platelets expressing the ES cell-derived GPI-1C isozyme. The role of GATA-1 in mast cell differentiation was examined by the isolation of clonal mast cell cultures from chimeric fetal livers. Mutant and wild-type mast cells displayed similar growth and histochemical staining properties after culture under conditions that promote the differentiation of cells resembling mucosal or serosal mast cells. Thus, the mast and megakaryocyte lineages, in which GATA-1 and GATA-2 are co-expressed, can complete their maturation in the absence of GATA-1, while erythroid cells, in which GATA-1 is the predominant GATA factor, are blocked at a relatively early stage of maturation.Development 02/1995; 121(1):163-72. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here we examine the expression of transcription factors GATA-2 and GATA-3 during early stages of embryonic development in the central nervous system (CNS) of the mouse. GATA-2 is expressed as early as 9 dpc in the hindbrain, in ventral rhombomere 4, and transiently in ventral rhombomere 2 (r2). From 9.5 to 11.5 dpc, activation of the gene spreads to many sites of early neuronal differentiation, such as the olfactory bulbs, the pretectum, and the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain, a thin stripe of cells lining the floor plate from the mesencephalon to the cervical spinal cord and a ventral column of cells spanning the neural tube from rostral hindbrain and including motor neuron as well as ventral interneuron precursors. GATA-3 is expressed in a pattern very similar to that of GATA-2. Distinguishing features are the lack of expression in r2 at 9 dpc and a slight delay in its activation. In addition, GATA-2 is activated in both the ventricular and the subventricular zones of the neural tube, whereas GATA-3 is restricted mainly to the subventricular zone. Expression analyses performed on GATA-2 -/- mouse embryos between E9.5 and 10.5 dpc established that: (i) the expression of GATA-3 in the developing CNS of the mouse embryo is dependent on the presence of GATA-2 and (ii) loss of GATA-2 leads to severe defects in neurogenesis, which strongly suggests that GATA-2 is involved, as in hematopoiesis, in the maintenance of the pool of ventral neuronal progenitors.Developmental Biology 07/1999; 210(2):305-21. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Generating the diversity of cell types in the inner ear may require an interplay between regional compartmentalization and local cellular interactions. Recent evidence has come from gene targeting, lineage analysis, fate mapping and gene expression studies. Notch signaling and neurogenic gene regulation are involved in patterning or specification of sensory organs, ganglion cells and hair cell mechanoreceptors.Current Opinion in Neurobiology 03/2002; 12(1):35-42. · 7.34 Impact Factor