Protein nonenzymatic modifications and proteasome activity in skeletal muscle from the short-lived rat and long-lived pigeon.
ABSTRACT What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to similar size mammalian counterparts. Since oxidative stress is causally related to the basic aging process, markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins (glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine; N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine and dinitrophenylhydrazyne-reactive protein carbonyls, peptidase activities of the proteasome, and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition were identified and measured in skeletal muscle from the short-lived rat (maximum life span, 4 years) and compared with the long-lived pigeon (maximum life span, 35 years). Skeletal muscle from pigeon showed significantly higher levels of glutamic semialdehyde, protein carbonyls (by western blot), N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. No differences were observed for aminoadipic semialdehyde, whereas the lipoxidation marker N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine displayed a significant low steady-state level, probably related with their significantly lower membrane unsaturation. The amino acid compositional analysis revealed that arginine, serine, threonine and methionine showed significantly lower levels in pigeon. Finally, pigeon samples showed also significantly lower levels of the peptidase activities of the proteasome. These results reinforces the role of structural components such as membrane unsaturation and protein composition in determining the longer maximum life span showed by birds compared with mammals of similar body size.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease, classically influenced by genetic determinants of individual susceptibility and by environmental accelerating factors, such as lifestyle. It is considered a major health concern,as its incidence is increasing at an alarming rate, and the high invalidating effects of its long-term complications affect macro- and microvasculature, heart, kidney, eye, and nerves. Increasing evidence indicates that hyperglycemia is the initiating cause of the tissue damage occurring in diabetes, either through repeated acute changes in cellular glucose metabolism, or through the long-term accumulation of glycated biomolecules and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs represent a heterogeneous group of chemical products resulting from a nonenzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, or a combination of these.The glycation process (glucose fixation) affects circulating proteins (serum albumin, lipoprotein, insulin, hemoglobin),whereas the formation of AGEs implicates reactive intermediates such as methylglyoxal. AGEs form cross-links on long-lived extracellular matrix proteins or react with their specific receptor RAGE, resulting inoxidative stress and proinflammatory signaling implicated in endothelium dysfunction, arterial stiffening, and microvascular complications. This review summarizes the mechanism of glycation and of AGEs formation and the role of hyperglycemia, AGEs, and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 07/2009; 11(12):3071-109. · 8.20 Impact Factor
The Auk 02/2009; · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The most studied comparison of aging and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) among endotherms involves the 7-fold longevity difference between rats (MLSP 5y) and pigeons (MLSP 35y). A widely accepted theory explaining MLSP differences between species is the oxidative stress theory, which purports that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during mitochondrial respiration damage bio-molecules and eventually lead to the breakdown of regulatory systems and consequent death. Previous rat-pigeon studies compared only aspects of the oxidative stress theory and most concluded that the lower mitochondrial superoxide production of pigeons compared to rats was responsible for their much greater longevity. This conclusion is based mainly on data from one tissue (the heart) using one mitochondrial substrate (succinate). Studies on heart mitochondria using pyruvate as a mitochondrial substrate gave contradictory results. We believe the conclusion that birds produce less mitochondrial superoxide than mammals is unwarranted. We have revisited the rat-pigeon comparison in the most comprehensive manner to date. We have measured superoxide production (by heart, skeletal muscle and liver mitochondria), five different antioxidants in plasma, three tissues and mitochondria, membrane fatty acid composition (in seven tissues and three mitochondria), and biomarkers of oxidative damage. The only substantial and consistent difference that we have observed between rats and pigeons is their membrane fatty acid composition, with rats having membranes that are more susceptible to damage. This suggests that, although there was no difference in superoxide production, there is likely a much greater production of lipid-based ROS in the rat. We conclude that the differences in superoxide production reported previously were due to the arbitrary selection of heart muscle to source mitochondria and the provision of succinate. Had mitochondria been harvested from other tissues or other relevant mitochondrial metabolic substrates been used, then very different conclusions regarding differences in oxidative stress would have been reached.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e24138. · 4.09 Impact Factor