The three-dimensional structure of integrins and their ligands, and conformational regulation of cell adhesion.

CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Advances in protein chemistry (Impact Factor: 0.75). 02/2004; 68:29-63. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-3233(04)68002-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Integrins are a structurally elaborate family of adhesion molecules that transmit signals bidirectionally across the plasma membrane by undergoing large-scale structural rearrangements. By regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, integrins participate in a wide-range of biological interactions including development, tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation and hemostasis. From a therapeutic standpoint, integrins are probably the most important class of cell adhesion receptors. Structural investigations on integrin-ligand interactions reveal remarkable features in molecular detail. These details include the atomic basis for divalent cation-dependent ligand binding and how conformational signals are propagated long distances from one domain to another between the cytoplasm and the extracellular ligand binding site that regulate affinity for ligand, and conversely, cytosolic signaling pathways.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thrombus formation in the injured vessel wall is a highly complex process involving various blood-born components that go through specific temporal and spatial changes as observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Platelets bind transiently to the developing thrombus and may either become stably incorporated into or disengage from the thrombus. The aim of the present study was to reveal the processes involved in the formation of a stable thrombus. Platelet-rich plasma and washed platelets were studied by the aggregometer. The aggregate stability was challenged by eptifibatide. Platelet Triton-insoluble fraction was prepared and the actin and αIIb content in the cytoskeleton was analyzed by western blot. Maximal actin polymerization is achieved 1min after platelet activation while maximal αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton association requires 5 to 10min of activation and fibrinogen-mediated platelet-to-platelet bridging. Thus, actin polymerization is dependent on platelet activation and requires neither αIIbβ3 integrin occupation nor platelet aggregation. Formation of a stable aggregate requires platelet activation for more than 1min, complete increase in actin cytoskeleton fraction and partial association of αIIbβ3 with the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct αIIbβ3 activation is not sufficient for cytoskeleton complex formation. Thus, stable αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interaction, representing stable aggregate, is achieved after more than 1min agonist activation, involving inside-out and outside-in signaling but not after direct integrin activation, involving only outside-in signaling. Formation of a stable fibrinogen-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex is the result of the combined effect of platelet stimulation by soluble agonists, activation of αIIbβ3, fibrinogen binding and platelet-to-platelet bridging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Thrombosis Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.10.005 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells are a source of physiologically important molecules that are synthesized and released to the blood and/or to the subendothelial extracellular matrix such as a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) with antithrombotic properties. Previously, we have shown that heparin stimulates the synthesis and modifies the sulfation pattern of this HSPG. Here the molecular mechanisms involved in the up-regulation of HSPG synthesis by heparin in endothelial cells were decoded. The cells were stimulated with heparin and the expression of HSPG and intracellular pathways were evaluated by a combination of methods involving confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, western blotting analyses, and [(35) S]-sulfate metabolically labeling of the cells. We observed that the up-regulation of HSPG synthesis evoked by heparin is dependent on the interaction of heparin with integrin since RGD peptide abolishes the effect. The activation of integrin leads to tyrosine-phosphorylation of focal adhesion-associated proteins such as FAK, Src, and paxillin. In addition, heparin induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibitors of Ras and MEK decreased heparin-dependent HSPG synthesis. Moreover, heparin also induced intracellular Ca(2+) release, PLCγ1 (phospholipase Cγ1) and CaMKII (calcium calmodulin kinase II) activation, as well as an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. Finally, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, Ca(2+) signaling inhibitors, and an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor were all able to abolish the effect in heparan sulfate synthesis. In conclusion, the heparin-induced up-regulation of HSPG expression is associated with the phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins and Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK MAP and Ca(2+) /NO pathways. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2012; 227(6). DOI:10.1002/jcp.23018 · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the structure of an integrin with an alphaI domain, alpha(X)beta(2), the complement receptor type 4. It was earlier expected that a fixed orientation between the alphaI domain and the beta-propeller domain in which it is inserted would be required for allosteric signal transmission. However, the alphaI domain is highly flexible, enabling two betaI domain conformational states to couple to three alphaI domain states, and greater accessibility for ligand recognition. Although alpha(X)beta(2) is bent similarly to integrins that lack alphaI domains, the terminal domains of the alpha- and beta-legs, calf-2 and beta-tail, are oriented differently than in alphaI-less integrins. Linkers extending to the transmembrane domains are unstructured. Previous mutations in the beta(2)-tail domain support the importance of extension, rather than a deadbolt, in integrin activation. The locations of further activating mutations and antibody epitopes show the critical role of extension, and conversion from the closed to the open headpiece conformation, in integrin activation. Differences among 10 molecules in crystal lattices provide unprecedented information on interdomain flexibility important for modelling integrin extension and activation.
    The EMBO Journal 02/2010; 29(3):666-79. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2009.367 · 10.75 Impact Factor