[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomarker assays are often conducted on whole blood samples in the course of drug development studies. Because bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (endotoxin) contamination is known to cause spontaneous cytokine production by monocytes, contamination of blood collection tubes may interfere with biomarker assay results.
Whole blood from healthy donors was collected into plastic or glass sodium (Na(+))-heparin Vacutainer() blood collection tubes and heparinized syringes. Samples were analyzed for phosphoprotein response, cytokine production, and RNA expression. Tubes were tested for endotoxin contamination by use of the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay.
Results of phospho-flow cytometry, branched DNA (bDNA), and ELISA assays indicated that a specific lot (#5339582) of plastic Na(+)-heparin Vacutainer tubes was highly contaminated with an endotoxinlike substance, and contamination was confirmed by the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Analysis of multiple-analyte panels revealed that analytes whose changed expression was predictive of LPS stimulation were increased when whole blood was incubated in contaminated tubes for 6 or 18 h. Two additional lots of plastic tubes tested had detectable amounts of endotoxin sufficient to strongly alter phospho-flow cytometry analyses, as determined by the fold change in phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha and LPS. In contrast, 3 lots of glass tubes had substantially lower levels of spontaneous blood activation.
Endotoxin contamination associated with tubes from 3 lots of a particular type of plastic Na(+)-heparin Vacutainer tube dramatically affected biomarker assay measurements. Prescreening these tubes is suggested before their use in clinical sample analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24h, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8h sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles.
Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10/2010; 24(5):775-84. DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2010.08.014 · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria) and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge's relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA.
Mediators of Inflammation 03/2014; 2014(4):545493. DOI:10.1155/2014/545493 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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