Systemic and intra-dorsal periaqueductal gray injections of cholecystokinin sulfated octapeptide (CCK-8s) induce a panic-like response in rats submitted to the elevated T-maze.
ABSTRACT The neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has been implicated in fear and anxiety. CCK is found in the CNS in several molecular forms such as the tetrapeptide (CCK-4) and, mainly, the sulfated octapeptide (CCK-8s) fragments. Administration of CCK-4 induces panic attacks in humans and increases the expression of different anxiety-related behaviors in laboratory animals. The effects of CCK-8s on fear and anxiety are less straightforward and seem to be influenced, among other factors, by the route of the peptide administration and the animal model employed. In other to further investigate the role of CCK-8s in fear and anxiety, in the present study we analyzed the effect of CCK-8s in male Wistar rats submitted to the elevated T-maze. This animal model of anxiety was developed in order to separate generalized anxiety (inhibitory avoidance) and panic-like (escape) responses in the same rat. The effect of CCK-8s in this test was also investigated after injection of the peptide into the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG). This brainstem area is rich in CCK receptors and has consistently been implicated in the mediation of fear and anxiety responses. The results showed that both the intraperitoneal and intra-DPAG injections of CCK-8s potentiated one-way escape behavior, suggesting a panicogenic action. In contrast, the injection of the CCK2 receptor antagonist CR2945 inhibited the expression of this behavior, a panicolytic-like effect. Therefore, the elevated T-maze, in contrast to other animal models of anxiety, can detect the anxiety-eliciting effects of CCK-8s both after its systemic and central administration. Also, the results provide further evidence about the involvement of a CCK-mediated mechanism within the DPAG in the regulation of panic-related defensive behaviors.
Article: Stress-induced Hyperalgesia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The importance of the modulation of pain by emotion is now widely recognised. In particular, stress and anxiety, depending on their nature, duration and intensity, can exert potent, but complex, modulatory influences typified by either a reduction or exacerbation of the pain state. Exposure to either acute or chronic stress can increase pain responding under experimental conditions and exacerbate clinical pain disorders. There is evidence that exposure to chronic or repeated stress can produce maladaptive neurobiological changes in pathways associated with pain processing, resulting in stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). Preclinical studies of SIH are essential for our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning stress-related pain syndromes and for the identification of neural pathways and substrates, and the development of novel therapeutic agents for their clinical management. In this review, we describe clinical and pre-clinical models used to study SIH and discuss the neural substrates, neurotransmitters and neuromodulatory systems involved in this phenomenon.Progress in Neurobiology 10/2014; · 10.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decreased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activity is associated with social defeat-induced depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the decreased mPFC activity and its prodepressant role remain unknown. We show here that induction of the transcription factor ΔFosB in mPFC, specifically in the prelimbic (PrL) area, mediates susceptibility to stress. ΔFosB induction in PrL occurred selectively in susceptible mice after chronic social defeat stress, and overexpression of ΔFosB in this region, but not in the nearby infralimbic (IL) area, enhanced stress susceptibility. ΔFosB produced these effects partly through induction of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-B receptor: CCKB blockade in mPFC induces a resilient phenotype, whereas CCK administration into mPFC mimics the anxiogenic- and depressant-like effects of social stress. We previously found that optogenetic stimulation of mPFC neurons in susceptible mice reverses several behavioral abnormalities seen after chronic social defeat stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projections would rescue the pathological effects of CCK in mPFC. After CCK infusion in mPFC, we optogenetically stimulated mPFC projections to basolateral amygdala or nucleus accumbens, two subcortical structures involved in mood regulation. Stimulation of corticoamygdala projections blocked the anxiogenic effect of CCK, although no effect was observed on other symptoms of social defeat. Conversely, stimulation of corticoaccumbens projections reversed CCK-induced social avoidance and sucrose preference deficits but not anxiogenic-like effects. Together, these results indicate that social stress-induced behavioral deficits are mediated partly by molecular adaptations in mPFC involving ΔFosB and CCK through cortical projections to distinct subcortical targets.Journal of Neuroscience 03/2014; 34(11):3878-87. · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tsunamis on coral reefs and sediment beds in the near shore region. A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was used to survey the coral reef and collect sediment samples from the coastal regions surrounding American Samoa five weeks after the tsunami generated by a magnitude 8.3 earthquake on September 29th, 2009. The surveys recorded extensive damage to the coral reefs, as evident by the broken corals of almost every type in the region and by debris from onshore, along the coastal regions of Poloa (14° 19′ 11″ S, 170° 50′ 11″ W) and Leone (14° 20′ 30″ S, 170° 47′ 1″ W). The field observations suggest that sand was carried from the beach out to sea by the tsunami drawdown causing net beach erosion, which is consistent with findings from model-scale studies presented in (Young et al., 2010). The field observations also suggest that the high sheer stresses created by the rapidly retreating seaward flow, and the sudden release of the sediments and debris entrained in the water during the drawdown process, are responsible for majority of the damage to the coral reef.Marine Geology 11/2011; 289(1):159-163. · 2.20 Impact Factor