Phosphorylation of NG2 proteoglycan by protein kinase C-alpha regulates polarized membrane distribution and cell motility
ABSTRACT Protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha phosphorylation of recombinant NG2 cytoplasmic domain and phorbol ester-induced PKC-dependent phosphorylation of full-length NG2 expressed in U251 cells are both blocked by mutation of Thr(2256), identifying this residue as a primary phosphorylation site. In untreated U251/NG2 cells, NG2 is present along with ezrin and alpha(3)beta(1) integrin in apical cell surface protrusions. Phorbol ester treatment causes redistribution of all three components to lamellipodia, accompanied by increased cell motility. U251 cells expressing NG2 with a valine substitution at position 2256 are resistant to phorbol ester treatment: NG2 remains in membrane protrusions and cell motility is unchanged. In contrast, NG2 with a glutamic acid substitution at position 2256 redistributes to lamellipodia even without phorbol ester treatment, rendering transfected U251 cells spontaneously motile. PKC-alpha-mediated NG2 phosphorylation at Thr(2256) is therefore a key step for initiating cell polarization and motility.
SourceAvailable from: Deidre Jansson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Brain inflammation plays a key role in neurological disease. Although much research has been conducted investigating inflammatory events in animal models, potential differences in human brain versus rodent models makes it imperative that we also study these phenomena in human cells and tissue. Methods Primary human brain cell cultures were generated from biopsy tissue of patients undergoing surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cells were treated with pro-inflammatory compounds IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β, and LPS, and chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 were measured by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarray analysis was also performed on late passage cultures treated with vehicle or IFNγ and IL-1β. Results Early passage human brain cell cultures were a mixture of microglia, astrocytes, fibroblasts and pericytes. Later passage cultures contained proliferating fibroblasts and pericytes only. Under basal culture conditions all cell types showed cytoplasmic NFκB indicating that they were in a non-activated state. Expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. The two chemokines were expressed in mixed cultures as well as cultures of fibroblasts and pericytes only. The expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were regulated at the mRNA and protein level, and both were secreted into cell culture media. NFκB nuclear translocation was also detected in response to pro-inflammatory cues (except IFNγ) in all cell types. Microarray analysis of brain pericytes also revealed widespread changes in gene expression in response to the combination of IFNγ and IL-1β treatment including interleukins, chemokines, cellular adhesion molecules and much more. Conclusions Adult human brain cells are sensitive to cytokine challenge. As expected ‘classical’ brain immune cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, responded to cytokine challenge but of even more interest, brain pericytes also responded to such challenge with a rich repertoire of gene expression. Immune activation of brain pericytes may play an important role in communicating inflammatory signals to and within the brain interior and may also be involved in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption . Targeting brain pericytes, as well as microglia and astrocytes, may provide novel opportunities for reducing brain inflammation and maintaining BBB function and brain homeostasis in human brain disease.Journal of Neuroinflammation 06/2014; 11(1):104. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-11-104 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Disruption of cell-matrix interactions can lead to anoikis-apoptosis due to loss of matrix contacts. We previously showed that Nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) is a novel anoikis receptor. Specifically, overexpression of NG2 leads to anoikis propagation, whereas its suppression leads to anoikis attenuation. Interestingly, NG2 expression decreases in late anoikis, suggesting that NG2 reduction is also critical to this process. Thus, we hypothesized that NG2 undergoes cleavage to curtail anoikis propagation. Further, since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave cell surface receptors, play a major role in modulating apoptosis, and are associated with death receptor cleavage during apoptosis, we further hypothesized that cleavage of NG2 could be mediated by MMPs to regulate anoikis. Indeed, anoikis conditions triggered release of the NG2 extracellular domain into condition media during late apoptosis, and this coincided with increased MMP-13 expression. Treatment with an MMP-13 inhibitor and MMP-13 siRNA increased anoikis, since these treatments blocked NG2 release. Further, NG2-positive cells exhibited increased anoikis upon MMP-13 inhibition, whereas MMP-13 inhibition did not increase anoikis in NG2-null cells, corroborating that retention of NG2 on the cell membrane is critical for sustaining anoikis, and its cleavage for mediating anoikis attenuation. Similarly, NG2 suppression with siRNA inhibited NG2 release and anoikis. In contrast, MMP-13 overexpression or exogenous MMP-13 reduced anoikis by more effectively shedding NG2. In conclusion, maintenance of NG2 on the cell surface promotes anoikis propagation, whereas its shedding by MMP-13 actions attenuates anoikis. Given that these findings are derived in the context of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, these data have implications for periodontal inflammation and periodontal disease pathogenesis.DNA and Cell Biology 08/2014; DOI:10.1089/dna.2014.2399 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of glia in modulating neuronal network activity is an important question. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) characteristically express the transmembrane proteoglycan nerve-glia antigen 2 (NG2) and are unique glial cells receiving synaptic input from neurons. The development of NG2+ OPC into myelinating oligodendrocytes has been well studied, yet the retention of a large population of synapse-bearing OPC in the adult brain poses the question as to additional functional roles of OPC in the neuronal network. Here we report that activity-dependent processing of NG2 by OPC-expressed secretases functionally regulates the neuronal network. NG2 cleavage by the α-secretase ADAM10 yields an ectodomain present in the extracellular matrix and a C-terminal fragment that is subsequently further processed by the γ-secretase to release an intracellular domain. ADAM10-dependent NG2 ectodomain cleavage and release (shedding) in acute brain slices or isolated OPC is increased by distinct activity-increasing stimuli. Lack of NG2 expression in OPC (NG2-knockout mice), or pharmacological inhibition of NG2 ectodomain shedding in wild-type OPC, results in a striking reduction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and alterations in the subunit composition of their α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr opionicacid (AMPA) receptors. In NG2-knockout mice these neurons exhibit diminished AMPA and NMDA receptor-dependent current amplitudes; strikingly AMPA receptor currents can be rescued by application of conserved LNS protein domains of the NG2 ectodomain. Furthermore, NG2-knockout mice exhibit altered behavior in tests measuring sensorimotor function. These results demonstrate for the first time a bidirectional cross-talk between OPC and the surrounding neuronal network and demonstrate a novel physiological role for OPC in regulating information processing at neuronal synapses.PLoS Biology 11/2014; 12(11):e1001993. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001993 · 11.77 Impact Factor