Carcinomas with micropapillary morphology: clinical significance and current concepts.
ABSTRACT Invasive micropapillary carcinoma has been recently recognized as a rare but distinctive variant of carcinoma in various anatomic sites, including breast, urinary bladder, lung, and major salivary glands. Morphologically, it is characterized by small tight clusters of neoplastic cells floating in clear spaces resembling lymphatic channels. Most often this growth pattern is mixed with a variable component of conventional carcinoma or other variants. In addition to a unique morphology, tumors with invasive micropapillary growth share a high propensity for lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Patients have typically high-stage disease at presentation and a poor clinical outcome compared with that of patients with conventional carcinoma arising in the same organ site. In this article the author reviews the available literature on tumors displaying a micropapillary component.
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ABSTRACT: Recent reports indicate that papillary thyroid carcinoma with hobnail features, also designated as micropapillary variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, is a rare but very aggressive variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. We examined the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 24 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma with hobnail/micropapillary component to determine the prognostic significance of the amount of hobnail/micropapillary features in these tumors. The patients included 18 women and 6 men. Ages ranged from 28 to 78 years (mean, 57 years). Tumor size ranged from 1 to 5.8 cm (mean, 3 cm). The average follow-up time was 106 months (range, 4-274 months). Twelve cases (50%) of papillary thyroid carcinoma showed more than 30% hobnail/micropapillary features, and all but 3 cases were associated with an aggressive behavior. During the follow-up, 6 of these patients died of disease after a mean of 44.8 months, and 3 patients remained alive with extensive disease after a mean follow-up of 32.3 months. Metastases to lymph nodes or distant organs showed a hobnail pattern of growth similar to the primary tumor. The remaining 3 patients with prominent hobnail/micropapillary features were alive with no evidence of disease after a mean follow-up of 125.3 months. The other 12 papillary thyroid carcinoma cases (50%) showed less than 30% hobnail/micropapillary features. Nine of these patients were alive without disease after a mean of 162 months, and 1 patient died of sepsis, which was not related to thyroid tumor after 155 months. Two patients in this group died of disease after 21 and 163 months, respectively. These findings confirm earlier observations that papillary thyroid carcinoma with hobnail/micropapillary features is an aggressive variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Tumors with more than 30% hobnail/micropapillary features were often very aggressive, although 2 patients with tumors with 10% hobnail/micropapillary features also had poor outcomes.Human pathology 10/2012; 44(3). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2012.06.003 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, comprising multiple entities associated with distinctive histological and biological features, clinical presentations and behaviours and responses to therapy. Microarray-based technologies have unravelled the molecular underpinning of several characteristics of breast cancer, including metastatic propensity and histological grade, and have led to the identification of prognostic and predictive gene expression signatures. Furthermore, a molecular taxonomy of breast cancer based on transcriptomic analysis has been proposed. However, microarray studies have primarily focused on invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type. Owing to the relative rarity of special types of breast cancer, information about the biology and clinical behaviour of breast cancers conveyed by histological type has not been taken into account. Histological special types of breast cancer account for up to 25% of all invasive breast cancers. Recent studies have provided direct evidence of the existence of genotypic-phenotypic correlations. For instance, secretory carcinomas of the breast consistently harbour the t(12;15) translocation that leads to the formation of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene, adenoid cystic carcinomas consistently display the t(6;9) MYB-NFIB translocation and lobular carcinomas consistently show inactivation of the CDH1 gene through multiple molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, histopathological and molecular analysis of tumours from conditional mouse models has provided direct evidence for the causative role of specific genes in the genesis of specific histological special types of breast cancer. Here we review the associations between the molecular taxonomy of breast cancer and histological special types, discuss the possible origins of the heterogeneity of breast cancer and propose an approach for the identification of novel therapeutic targets based on the study of histological special types of breast cancer.Molecular oncology 04/2010; 4(3):192-208. DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2010.04.004 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: On the basis of recent clinical studies, some urologic oncologists do not offer bladder-sparing therapy for patients diagnosed with micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder, even in the setting superficially invasive disease. Unfortunately, the distinction of invasive micropapillary carcinoma from typical invasive urothelial carcinoma with prominent retraction artifact may be difficult in some cases. In this study, we compared the immunophenotype of invasive micropapillary carcinoma to invasive urothelial carcinoma with retraction artifact using antibodies previously reported as specific for micropapillary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 24 invasive micropapillary carcinomas of the urinary tract and 24 case controls of invasive urothelial carcinoma with retraction artifact using monoclonal antibodies MUC1, CA125, and Her2Neu. The staining extent and intensity for MUC1 and CA125 were scored on one representative section per case. Immunostaining for Her2Neu was scored based on the 2007 CAP/ASCO guidelines for breast carcinoma. Basal ('reverse-apical') MUC1 staining was identified in 23 of the 24 (96%) invasive micropapillary carcinomas and in 15 of the 24 (63%) invasive urothelial carcinomas with retraction artifact (P=0.0102). Membranous reactivity with CA125 was seen in 8 of the 24 (33%) invasive micropapillary carcinomas and in 3 of the 24 (13%) invasive urothelial carcinomas with retraction artifact (P=0.1681). Positive (3+) membranous Her2Neu staining was present in 6 of 24 (25%) invasive micropapillary carcinomas and in 2 of the 24 (8%) invasive urothelial carcinomas with retraction artifact (P=0.2448). The specificity for invasive micropapillary carcinoma vs invasive urothelial carcinoma with retraction artifact using antibodies MUC1, CA125, and Her2Neu was 37, 87, and 92%, respectively. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma more commonly showed immunoreactivity for MUC1, CA125, and Her2Neu compared to invasive urothelial carcinoma with retraction artifact, but only MUC1 reached statistical significance. The lack of specificity of these evaluated markers for invasive micropapillary carcinoma limits their utility in the distinction from invasive urothelial carcinoma with retraction artifact, especially given the potentially significant therapeutic implications.Modern Pathology 04/2009; 22(5):660-7. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2009.16 · 6.36 Impact Factor