Substance P enhances expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory factors in dental pulp cells.
ABSTRACT To examine how substance P (SP) is related with dental pulp inflammation, we examined the effects of SP on expression of genes for inflammatory factors in human dental pulp cell cultures. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we found that Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced expression of SP and SP-receptor mRNAs, and that somatostatin inhibited the LPS-induced expression of SP mRNA. We also found that SP enhanced LPS-induced stimulation of NF-kappaB binding activity. In addition, SP induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-10 receptor mRNAs. In contrast, SP inhibited expression of interferon-gamma receptor mRNA. These results suggest that SP may play a regulatory role in the immunological response of dental pulp tissue to pathogenic bacteria.