Folklore reports from Afghanistan prior to the wars described the use of aqueous root extracts of Cichorium intybus (L.) as a light-sensitive plant remedy for malaria. Preparative isolation and bioassay against HB3 clone of strain Honduras-1 of Plasmodium falciparum identified the previously known light-sensitive sesquiterpene lactones Lactucin and Lactucopicrin to be antimalarial compounds.
"Chicory leaves, and especially roots, are rich in lactucin-like guaianolides: lactucin, its p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid ester lactupicrin (or lactucopicrin), 8- deoxylactucin, as well as their 11(S),13-dihydroderivatives and glycosides, while the levels of eudesmanolides and germacranolides are lower (Kisiel and Zielinska, 2001; Malarz et al., 2002; Van Beek et al., 1990). Guaianolides are shown to have antifeedant (Rees and Harborne, 1985), antifungal (Barrero et al., 2000), antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity, as well as potent antimalarial effect (Bischoff et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L) is rich in bitter sesquiterpene lactones, mainly guaianolides: lactucin, 8-deoxylactucin, lactupicrin and their 11(S),13-dihydroderivatives-compounds recognized for their antimicrobial and anti-cancer effects. In vitro plant tissue culture, and particularly Agro bacterium rhizogeries-generated hairy root (HR) cultures, have many advantages as systems for production of valuable secondary metabolites. Although chicory HRs grow better than control culture, having nearly 60 times greater fresh weight gain, they do not contain a higher content of guaianolides than wild type (wt) roots. Thus we have established in vitro system comprised of wt root and HR cultures, and wt and transformed regenerated plants of the same age, in rosette and flowering stage, in order to study the effects of transformation, organogenesis and flowering on guaianolides production. Both regeneration and flowering in vitro were spontaneous, so the results were not influenced by exogenous growth regulators. Some of the transformed clones grew better, but all flowered earlier in comparison to wt plants. Floral transition increased guaianolides content in both roots and leaves of transformed, but not of wt plants. Expression of RolC oncogene correlated with floral transition and with guaianolides accumulation. We propose A. rhizogenes transformed plants at the flowering stage as an alternative source of free guaianolides, where, in contrast to HRs, entire plants can be used for the extraction.
"al., 2007a, 2007b), and flavonoids (Yang et al., 2009), extensive studies in recent years have displayed that Cichorium has various kinds of bioactivities including photo protective (Enk et al., 2004, Heimlera Daniela et. al., 2009), hepatoprotective (Upur et al., 2009, Hanaa and Mokhtar, 2010), antimalarial (Bischoff et al., 2004) anti-inflammatory (Cavin et al., 2005), antitumor (Hazra et al., 2002, Al-Akhras MA et al., 2012) antiviral (Matvieieva et al., 2012), antioxidative (Lavelli, 2008), anti-diabetic (Xin et al., 2012, Yao et al., 2013, Muthusamy et al., 2008) and cholesterol-lowering (Zhao et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2008) effects. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Cichorum glandulosum Boiss. et Huet is a traditional Uygur herbal medicine that has been used as a cholagogic and diuretic agent to improve liver function. However, the mechanism is not known for the liver-protective function. We investigated the antioxidant effects of plant extraction (CGE60) in vitro and in vivo, and find the mechanism of liver protection in Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG)+Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced liver injury in mice.
Materials and methods:
CGE60 was made, and the antioxidant activity was investigated by comparing the ability of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2-azinobis(3-ehtylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfnicAcid) diammonium salt (ABTS) free radicals in vitro. Then, CGE60 was administrated in mice of liver damage model which was induced in mice using the BCG+LPS protocol. The CGE 60 extract was tested at three dosages: 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg. Product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX,), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), hydroxyproline and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) contents were evaluated in liver to determine the CGE60 activity in the hepatic injury model. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) proteins were determined in the liver tissues using ELSIA. The signaling activities were evaluated in Western blot.
CGE60 exhibited strong antioxidant ability in vitro. With oral administration, CGE60 significantly increased the activity of CAT, SOD, GSH-PX, and decreased the level of NO, NO synthase, hydroxyproline, ALP and lipid peroxidation liver of in the BDG+ LPS model. CGE60 attenuated hepatic inflammation via down- regulation of TNF-α, IL-6 and TGF-β. CGE60 blocked protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),but activated the expression of p-P38 MAPK.
This study suggests that CGE60 possesses antioxidant activity and this activity associates with hepatoprotective effect in the mice of BCG +LPS model, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may involve antioxidant actions and anti-inflammation activities.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 06/2014; 155(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.014 · 3.00 Impact Factor
"Prior to the wars in Afghanistan, folkloric reports described the use of aqueous root extracts as a light-sensitive plant remedy for malaria. This indigenous knowledge has since been confirmed and the antimalarial compounds of C. intybus roots have been identified as the light-sensitive sesquiterpene lactones lactucin and lactucopicrin . The flowers of the chicory plant (Cichorii flos) are used as a herbal treatment of everyday ailments such as a tonic and appetite stimulant and as a treatment of gallstones, gastroenteritis, sinus problems, cuts, and bruises . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae) is made up of six species with major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium intybus, commonly known as chicory, is well known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Although this plant has a rich history of use in folklore, many of its constituents have not been explored for their pharmacological potential. Toxicological data on C. intybus is currently limited. This review focuses on the economic and culturally important medicinal uses of C. intybus. Traditional uses, scientific validation, and phytochemical composition are discussed in detail.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 2013(15):579319. DOI:10.1155/2013/579319 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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