In vitro antiplasmodial activity of callus culture extracts and fractions from fresh apical stems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae): part 2
ABSTRACT The ethanolic extracts from fresh apical stems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with IBA/BAP/Coco nucifera L. milk for 1, 2, 4 and 6 months were phytochemically and biologically investigated and compared with intact plant part and whole plant extracts. Results from the in vitro antiplasmodial testing indicated that the EtOH extract of a 1-month-old callus culture (IC(50) = 16.3 +/- 2.5 microg/ml) exhibited a higher activity than the ethanolic extracts of the fresh apical stem (IC(50) = 18.2 +/- 2.4 microg/ml) and callus cultures of 2-, 4- and 6-months-old (25 microg/ml < IC(50) < 40 microg/ml). These activities were however lower than that displayed by the ethanolic extract of the whole plant (IC(50) < 3 microg/ml). The EtOH extract of 1-month-old callus culture (the most active) was fractionated with solvents of different polarities. Its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction rich in terpenic constituents (IC(50) = 9.2 +/- 3.4 microg/ml) exhibited a higher antiplasmodial activity than its isoamylic alcohol fraction obtained at pH 2-3 (IC(50) = 25.6 +/- 2.3 microg/ml) rich in flavonoids. The activity of these two fractions was lower than that displayed by the same fractions from the whole plant (2 microg/ml < IC(50) < 3 microg/ml). Alkaloidic fractions from the whole plant and 1-month-old callus culture of fresh apical stem were considered as inactive (IC(50) > 100 microg/ml).
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to connect two methods of the chemical control. The first chemical treatments were applied according to the signalling method. The second method was applied according to the phonological criterion i.e., on the basis of the values of effective temperatures sums or heat sums for cutworms. The studies on cutworms infesting sugar beet crops were carried out in the years 2005-2008. The observation performed during the moth flights from May to September included two species, turnip moth (Agrotis segetum Den. & Schiff.) and heart-and-dart moth (A. exclamationis L.). The dynamics of moth flights was recorded in reference to readings of climatic conditions registered with the field meteorological stations set up near the light traps. Observations on cutworm occurrence during the vegetation season were done every 5-7 days. Moreover, additional studies were conducted under control conditions in the growth chambers at three programmed temperatures (17 °C, 20 °C, 24 °C) and relative humidity (50%-70%). Based on the results the values for the heat sum of 501.1 °C and effective temperatures sum of 230.0 °C were determined for the developmental stages of cutworm. On the base of the results obtained it can be stated that the improved method of short-term forecasting can be an alternative solution in the integrated protection management against pest.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the use of in vitro techniques for regeneration of adventitious shoots in Phyllanthus niruri, an anti-malarial plant as an initial effort towards its domestication. Fruits cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium (MS) supplemented with BAP had low germination (61%) due to seed coat imposed dormancy. The culture of nodal cuttings explants on BAP, kinetin or 2-isopentyl adenine (2iP) amended medium to avoid seed dormancy resulted in shoot regeneration without roots in all accessions with BAP producing the highest number of shoots (9.0). Subsequent inclusion of either 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in the BAP, kinetin or 2iP amended MS medium also produced only shoots. Leaf lobe explants cultured on only 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) amended medium led to a significant calli development with 1 mg/L 2,4-D producing 100, 88.9 and 95.8% callus, respectively from Kwabenya, Kasoa and Aburi accessions. Subsequent transfer of calli to MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L BAP led to calli growth (increase in weight) and morphogenic response depending on the concentration of 2,4-D in the induction medium. Only 55 and 25% of these calli from Kwabenya and Kasoa, respectively produced shoots while roots development was significantly higher ranging from 48 to 88.9%. These shoots did not survive ex-vitro acclimatisation due to hyperhydricity while those regenerated from nodal cuttings or seeds had high percentage survival. The high morphogenetic response of Phyllanthus niruri in vitro can be used to propagate this anti malarial plant and enhance its utilization in the treatment of malaria.AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 10/2012; 11(80):14542-14552,. DOI:10.5897/AJB12.1591 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phyllanthus niruri is a plant with medicinal properties. It is often used to treat mild malaria and the elimination of renal stones. However, studies on its toxicity are scarce. The study was carried out to determine if the aqueous leaf extract of P. niruri administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats would illicit evidence of toxicity. Fifteen female rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into 3 groups. Rats in Group 1 were given a single low dose (LD) of 2000 mg/kg b.w. of the extract by oral gavage within 24 hrs. Rats in Group 2 were given a single high dose (HD) of 5000 mg/kg b.w. of the extract by oral gavage within 24 hrs. Rats in Group 3 were not given any extract but drinking water and served as the control group (C). All the rats were observed for signs of toxidromes for 14 days. On the 15(th) day, all the rats were sacrificed. Body organs were harvested for macroscopic examination. Urine and blood samples were drawn and analyzed. Hematological tests performed included full blood count and hemoglobin. Biochemical examinations included bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatse (ALP), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), urea, and creatinine. The results of the three groups were not significantly different. Examination of the various body organs did not show any abnormality. Thus no toxicity was observed at the levels administered. The LD(50) of the aqueous extract is>5000 mg/kg. b.w.Interdisciplinary toxicology 12/2011; 4(4):206-10. DOI:10.2478/v10102-011-0031-9