In vitro antiplasmodial activity of callus culture extracts and fractions from fresh apical stems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae): Part 2
ABSTRACT The ethanolic extracts from fresh apical stems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with IBA/BAP/Coco nucifera L. milk for 1, 2, 4 and 6 months were phytochemically and biologically investigated and compared with intact plant part and whole plant extracts. Results from the in vitro antiplasmodial testing indicated that the EtOH extract of a 1-month-old callus culture (IC(50) = 16.3 +/- 2.5 microg/ml) exhibited a higher activity than the ethanolic extracts of the fresh apical stem (IC(50) = 18.2 +/- 2.4 microg/ml) and callus cultures of 2-, 4- and 6-months-old (25 microg/ml < IC(50) < 40 microg/ml). These activities were however lower than that displayed by the ethanolic extract of the whole plant (IC(50) < 3 microg/ml). The EtOH extract of 1-month-old callus culture (the most active) was fractionated with solvents of different polarities. Its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction rich in terpenic constituents (IC(50) = 9.2 +/- 3.4 microg/ml) exhibited a higher antiplasmodial activity than its isoamylic alcohol fraction obtained at pH 2-3 (IC(50) = 25.6 +/- 2.3 microg/ml) rich in flavonoids. The activity of these two fractions was lower than that displayed by the same fractions from the whole plant (2 microg/ml < IC(50) < 3 microg/ml). Alkaloidic fractions from the whole plant and 1-month-old callus culture of fresh apical stem were considered as inactive (IC(50) > 100 microg/ml).
- SourceAvailable from: Wilfred Elegba
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- "In vitro multiple shoots induction in Phyllanthus amarus had been achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) 1962 basal medium (MS) modified with sucrose and low concentrations of benzyl amino purine (0.1 mg/L BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (0.05 mg/L NAA (Ghanti et al., 2004). Also, calli induction in several species of Phyllanthus has been reported by several authors like Catapan et al. (2001), Cimanga et al. (2004) and Luyindula et al. (2004). Linyindula et al. (2004) successfully induced calli from apical shoots of P. niruri on a medium supplemented with 4 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). "
ABSTRACT: We investigated the use of in vitro techniques for regeneration of adventitious shoots in Phyllanthus niruri, an anti-malarial plant as an initial effort towards its domestication. Fruits cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium (MS) supplemented with BAP had low germination (61%) due to seed coat imposed dormancy. The culture of nodal cuttings explants on BAP, kinetin or 2-isopentyl adenine (2iP) amended medium to avoid seed dormancy resulted in shoot regeneration without roots in all accessions with BAP producing the highest number of shoots (9.0). Subsequent inclusion of either 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in the BAP, kinetin or 2iP amended MS medium also produced only shoots. Leaf lobe explants cultured on only 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) amended medium led to a significant calli development with 1 mg/L 2,4-D producing 100, 88.9 and 95.8% callus, respectively from Kwabenya, Kasoa and Aburi accessions. Subsequent transfer of calli to MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L BAP led to calli growth (increase in weight) and morphogenic response depending on the concentration of 2,4-D in the induction medium. Only 55 and 25% of these calli from Kwabenya and Kasoa, respectively produced shoots while roots development was significantly higher ranging from 48 to 88.9%. These shoots did not survive ex-vitro acclimatisation due to hyperhydricity while those regenerated from nodal cuttings or seeds had high percentage survival. The high morphogenetic response of Phyllanthus niruri in vitro can be used to propagate this anti malarial plant and enhance its utilization in the treatment of malaria.AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 10/2012; 11(80):14542-14552,. DOI:10.5897/AJB12.1591 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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- "Phyllanthus niruri, a medicinal plant found in the tropics and other parts of the world, exhibits the ability to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (Campos and Schor, 1999; Freitas et al., 2002) and stone formation in urolithiasis (Barros et al., 2003, 2006). Furthermore, it is used to treat hyperglycemia (Raphael et al., 2002), hypertension (Srividya and Periwal, 1995), pain (Miguel et al., 1996), and mild malaria (Tona et al., 2001; Cimanga et al., 2004; Mustofa et al., 2007). P. niruri is said to protect against hepatitis B virus (Mehrotra et al., 1990), chemical toxins (Lee at al., 2006; Chatterjee et al., 2006), liver cancer (Rajeshkumar and Kuttan, 2000), and tumorigenesis (Rajeshkumar et al., 2002). "
ABSTRACT: Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract. The extract was administered as a single dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg to laboratory rats by gavage, accompanied by negative (0.9% saline) and positive (10 mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) controls that were injected intramuscularly 48 h after extract administration. The ratio of polychromatic (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) from femur bone marrow was scored for genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was determined using descending concentrations (0.2-0.0125 g/mL) of the extract incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged cells was determined and the CC(50) calculated. Subchronic administration of the extract at 30 or 300 mg/kg was done for 90 days to determine general toxicity. PCE:NCE (%) for the extract and negative control was 63, compared to 168 (positive control). The CC(50) was 26.3 mg/mL and hepato-renal toxicity after subchronic extract administration was nil. We conclude that ethanol extract of P. niruri is not cytotoxic or genotoxic, and is generally non-toxic on subchronic administration.Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2012; 11(1):100-11. DOI:10.4238/2012.January.13.3 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to connect two methods of the chemical control. The first chemical treatments were applied according to the signalling method. The second method was applied according to the phonological criterion i.e., on the basis of the values of effective temperatures sums or heat sums for cutworms. The studies on cutworms infesting sugar beet crops were carried out in the years 2005-2008. The observation performed during the moth flights from May to September included two species, turnip moth (Agrotis segetum Den. & Schiff.) and heart-and-dart moth (A. exclamationis L.). The dynamics of moth flights was recorded in reference to readings of climatic conditions registered with the field meteorological stations set up near the light traps. Observations on cutworm occurrence during the vegetation season were done every 5-7 days. Moreover, additional studies were conducted under control conditions in the growth chambers at three programmed temperatures (17 °C, 20 °C, 24 °C) and relative humidity (50%-70%). Based on the results the values for the heat sum of 501.1 °C and effective temperatures sum of 230.0 °C were determined for the developmental stages of cutworm. On the base of the results obtained it can be stated that the improved method of short-term forecasting can be an alternative solution in the integrated protection management against pest.