External beam radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: potential of intensity-modulated and image-guided radiation therapy.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UTHSC at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 13.93). 12/2004; 127(5 Suppl 1):S206-17. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.09.035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT External beam radiotherapy has historically played a minor role in the primary treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although there is evidence for tumor response to external beam radiotherapy and despite the fact that a radiation dose-response relationship has been established, the limited radiation tolerance of the adjacent normal liver has prohibited wider use of radiation therapy in this disease. Recent technological and conceptual developments in the field of radiation therapy-such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic body radiation therapy-have the potential to improve radiation treatments by conforming the delivered radiation dose distribution tightly to the tumor or target volume outline while sparing normal liver tissue from high-dose radiation. Image guidance allows for a reduction of added (normal tissue) safety margins designed to account for interfraction patient and target setup variability, and stereotactic targeting will further reduce residual target setup uncertainty. Combining improvements in tumor targeting with normal tissue sparing, radiation dose delivery will enable clinically effective and safe radiation delivery for liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma. This article reviews the role of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma; presents modern radiation therapy modalities and concepts such as intensity-modulated, image-guided, and stereotactic body radiation therapy; and hypothesizes about their future effect on primary treatment alternatives.

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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe CyberKnife® system is a recent radiation therapy technique that allows treatment of liver lesions with real-time tracking. Because of its high precision, the dose administered to the tumor can be increased. We report Oscar-Lambret Cancer Centre experience in the treatment of primary and secondary liver lesions.Patients and methodsIt is a retrospective study analyzing all the patients who have been treated for their liver lesions since July 2007. A hundred and twenty patients have been treated: 42 for hepatocellular carcinoma, 72 for liver metastases and six for cholangiocarcinoma. Gold seeds need to be implanted before the treatment and are used as markers to follow the movement of the lesion due to respiration. On average, the treatment is administered in three to four sessions over 12 days. A total dose of 40 to 45 Gy at the 80% isodose is delivered. Local control and overall survival analysis with Log-rank is performed for each type of lesion.ResultsTreatment tolerance is good. The most common toxicities are of digestive type, pain and asthenia. Six gastro-duodenal ulcers and two radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) were observed. At a median follow-up of 15 months, the local control rate is respectively of 80.4% and 72.5% at 1 and 2 years. Overall survival is 84.6 and 58.3% at 1 and 2 years. The local control is significantly better for the hepatocellular carcinoma and overall survival is significantly better for liver metastases (P < 0.05). The local control rate and overall survival at 1 year for cholangiocarcinoma is 100%.Conclusion CyberKnife® is a promising technique, well tolerated, with tumoral local control rates comparable to other techniques. Its advantage is that it is very minimally invasive delivered as an outpatient procedure in a frail population of patient (disease, age).
    Cancer/Radiothérapie 02/2012; 16(1):58–69. DOI:10.1016/j.canrad.2011.06.005 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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May 15, 2014