Proteomics for hepatocellular carcinoma marker discovery.
ABSTRACT Refinements of serological markers and screening of patients at high risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may lead to better HCC detection, earlier intervention, and successful treatment, improving long-term outcomes. Proteomics promises the discovery of biomarkers for early HCC detection and diagnosis. Proteomic-based profiling uniquely allows delineation of global changes in expression patterns resulting from transcriptional and posttranscriptional control, posttranslational modifications, and shifts in proteins between cellular compartments. Approaches to that effect include direct serum protein profiling and comparative analysis of protein expression in normal, precancerous, and early-stage tumor tissues. Identification of panels of tumor antigens that elicit a humoral response also may contribute to the discovery of new markers for HCC screening and diagnosis. Today, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and protein microarrays are among the proteomic tools available for biomarker and drug target discovery. We review these technologies and their application to the study of HCC. Our objective is to provide a framework for appreciating the promise, while at the same time understanding the challenges behind translating proteomics discovery into novel diagnostic tests.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic infections with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have utilized a proteomic approach to determine whether a distinct repertoire of autoantibodies can be identified in HCC. Sera from 37 patients with HCC and 31 subjects chronically infected with HBV or HCV without HCC were investigated. Sera from 116 patients with other cancers, three patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 24 healthy subjects were utilized as controls. We report the identification of eight proteins, for each of which autoantibodies were detected in sera from more than 10% of patients with HCC but not in sera from healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Autoantibodies to four of these proteins were detected at a comparable frequency in sera from patients with chronic hepatitis. The other four proteins, which consisted of calreticulin isoforms, cytokeratin 8, nucleoside diphosphate kinase A, and F(1)-ATP synthase beta-subunit, induced autoantibodies among patients with HCC, independently of their HBV/HCV status. Calreticulin, and a novel truncated form of calreticulin (Crt32) we have identified, most commonly elicited autoantibodies among patients with HCC (27%). We conclude that a distinct repertoire of autoantibodies is associated with HCC that may have utility in early diagnosis of HCC among high risk subjects with chronic hepatitis.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 03/2002; 1(3):197-203. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mass spectroscopic analysis of the low molecular mass (LMM) range of the serum/plasma proteome is a rapidly emerging frontier for biomarker discovery. This study examined the proportion of LMM biomarkers, which are bound to circulating carrier proteins. Mass spectroscopic analysis of human serum following molecular mass fractionation, demonstrated that the majority of LMM biomarkers exist bound to carrier proteins. Moreover, the pattern of LMM biomarkers bound specifically to albumin is distinct from those bound to non-albumin carriers. Prominent SELDI-TOF ionic species (m/z 6631.7043) identified to correlate with the presence of ovarian cancer were amplified by albumin capture. Several insights emerged: a) Accumulation of LMM biomarkers on circulating carrier proteins greatly amplifies the total serum/plasma concentration of the measurable biomarker, b) The total serum/plasma biomarker concentration is largely determined by the carrier protein clearance rate, not the unbound biomarker clearance rate itself, and c) Examination of the LMM species bound to a specific carrier protein may contain important diagnostic information. These findings shift the focus of biomarker detection to the carrier protein and its biomarker content.Disease markers 01/2003; 19(1):1-10. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The emergence of novel technologies allows researchers to facilitate the comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes in health and disease. The information that is expected from such technologies may soon exert a dramatic change in the pace of cancer research and impact dramatically on the care of cancer patients. These approaches have already demonstrated the power of molecular medicine in discriminating among disease subtypes that are not recognizable by traditional pathologic criteria and in identifying specific genetic events involved in cancer progression. This review covers a selection of advances in the realm of proteomics and its promise for cancer biomarker discovery. It also addresses issues regarding sample preparation and specificity and discusses current challenges that need to be overcome. Finally, the review touches on the efforts of the Early Detection Research Network at the National Cancer Institute in promoting biomarker discovery for translation at the clinical level.Clinical Chemistry 09/2002; 48(8):1160-9. · 7.15 Impact Factor