Modifications of plasma concentrations of hormonal and tissue factors during mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to analyse if the decrease of cardiac performance due to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application, within low values applied in clinical practice (5 cm H(2)O) is able to trigger a response of the main endogenous factors which control and maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP).
This study was applied to 18 patients, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the University Hospital of Modena, who underwent oro-tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. On admission, patients did not suffer from cardiac or lung disease. This study analyses plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, ET-1, NO metabolites, renin, aldosterone at 4 different times: before PEEP application, 60 minutes after the beginning of mechanical ventilation with PEEP, and respectively 30 and 60 minutes after withdrawal of PEEP. At the same time, MAP values and heart rate (HR) have been observed.
Results show an increase of epinephrine and norepinephrine after PEEP application and a decrease to basal values at PEEP withdrawal. All variations are statistically significant. After PEEP introduction, ET-1 showed an increased concentration, although it was not statistically significant, while a significant decreasing trend was observed after PEEP withdrawal. A significant increase of NO metabolite values has been observed together with the increase of ET-1, followed by a decrease to basal values after the withdrawal of PEEP. Concentrations of renin increased when PEEP was applied even though they were not significant and decreased significantly when PEEP was withdrawn. A similar trend was revealed by aldosterone even though it underwent constant significant variations.
The administration of PEEP produces an effective response of endogenous substances whose function is to maintain a proper tissue perfusion.