Clinical Implications of Obesity With Specific Focus on Cardiovascular Disease A Statement for Professionals From the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism

American Heart Association, Dallas, Texas, United States
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 12/2004; 110(18):2952-67. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000145546.97738.1E
Source: PubMed


Obesity adversely affects cardiac function, increases the risk factors for coronary heart disease, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The risk of developing coronary heart disease is directly related to the concomitant burden of obesity-related risk factors. Modest weight loss can improve diastolic function and affect the entire cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors simultaneously. This statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism reviews the relationship between obesity and the cardiovascular system, evaluates the effect of weight loss on coronary heart disease risk factors and coronary heart disease, and provides practical weight management treatment guidelines for cardiovascular healthcare professionals. The data demonstrate that weight loss and physical activity can prevent and treat obesity-related coronary heart disease risk factors and should be considered a primary therapy for obese patients with cardiovascular disease.

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Available from: Robert Eckel, Aug 18, 2015
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    • "The clinical implications of atherosclerosis are highly depend upon the 'vulnerable plaques' throughout the arteries compared to 'stable plaque' that can have either an occlusion due to the growing plaque or due to the embolization of the ruptured fragments of the original plaque followed by Ulceration of atheroma (Klein S et al., 2004; Scolari F et al., 2007) "
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a narrowing of the arteries that can significantly reduce the blood supply to vital organs such as the heart, brain and intestines. In atherosclerosis, the arteries are narrowed when fatty deposits called plaques build up inside. Plaques typically contain cholesterol from low-density lipoproteins (LDL), smooth-muscle cells and fibrous tissue, and sometimes calcium. Angiography, cardio-arterial bypass surgery and stenting are only definite cure to increase the longevity of treatment of this disease. Even today, a large number of asymptomatic young people have evidence of atherosclerosis. A 2001 study of 262 apparently healthy people's hearts may surprise you: 52% had some atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was present in 85% of those older than 50.17% of teenagers had atherosclerosis. There are also a range of medications which can be used to treat atherosclerosis effectively with potential positive results including use of lipid-lowering drugs; use of anticoagulants e.g aspirin, beta blockers, bile acid sequestrants, calcium channel blockers, Ezetimibe, Fibrates, Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibitors, Niacin (Nicotinic Acid), Nitrates, Platelet Inhibitors, Statins (HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors) and Thrombolytics drugs. So, its potential diagnosis with effective treatments can might have possibility to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate of the affected individuals with increased survival rate.
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    • "CR trials in humans have also shown that many biomarkers related to major risk factors for CVD, that is, subclinical atherosclerosis [6] and type 2 diabetes [7], can be favorably influenced by CR, thus suggesting that delaying the onset and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and diabetes may be among the potential mechanisms by which CR promotes health span. In addition, it is well established that overweight and obese individuals have increased CVD mortality [8] [9] and weight loss in these individuals improves CVD risk factors with a reduction in coronary heart disease event rates [10] [11]. In addition, it has been also shown that physical exercise in overweight subjects reduces the risk for atherosclerosis, acute cardiovascular events, stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a randomized clinical trial of calorie restriction (CR), we demonstrated that important cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers were favorably influenced by CR alone and in conjunction with physical exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CR with or without exercise on copper bound to ceruloplasmin (CuCp), a well-known biomarker for CVD, in overweight men and women enrolled in the CALERIE phase 1 study. Forty-six individuals were randomized to one of four groups for 6 months: control, healthy weight maintenance; CR, 25% CR from baseline energy requirements; CR+exercise, 12.5% CR and 12.5% through aerobic exercise; and low-calorie diet, low-calorie diet until 15% reduction in body weight followed by weight maintenance diet. CuCp was determined in fasting blood samples by a high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methodology and compared with changes in body composition and markers of CVD. After 6 months, CR combined with exercise induced a decrease in plasma concentration of CuCp. CuCp was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. A cluster analysis showed that the percent change of weight after 6 months of intervention was the most important variable that could discriminate the intervention groups. The percent change of CuCp was the only other variable selected by the analysis. Decreased CuCp in overweight subjects by CR combined with exercise suggests a positive effect of this intervention on metabolic health. Further studies to explain the relationship between weight loss and CuCp and its relevance for cardiovascular health are needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 05/2015; 26(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.03.012 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    • "Obesity hastens the progression of LVH in patients with LV afterload [17]. Moreover, obesity is not only a major contributor to both diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but typically involves additional components of the metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance [18]. Insulin resistance is a powerful predictor of progression to LVH in AS patients [19]. "

    Journal of Cardiology 02/2015; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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