Gingival carcinogenicity in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats following two-year oral treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin-like compounds.
ABSTRACT We evaluated gingival toxicities induced by chronic exposure of female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and compared them to similarly induced oral lesions reported in the literature. This investigation represents part of an ongoing initiative of the National Toxicology Program to determine the relative potency of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls. For two years, animals were administered by gavage 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126); 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF); 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153); a tertiary mixture of TCDD, PCB126, and PeCDF; a binary mixture of PCB126 and 153; or a binary mixture of PCB126 and 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118); control animals received corn oil-acetone vehicle (99:1) alone. A full complement of tissues, including the palate with teeth, was examined microscopically. In the groups treated with TCDD and the mixtures of TCDD, PCB126, and PeCDF; PCB126 and 153; and PCB126 and 118, the incidences of gingival squamous hyperplasia increased significantly. Moreover, in the groups treated with TCDD, PCB126, and the mixture of PCB126 and 153, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the oral cavity increased significantly. This investigation constitutes the first report documenting that chronic administration of dioxin-like PCBs can induce gingival SCC in rats. These results indicate that dioxin and DLCs target the gingiva of the oral cavity, in particular the junctional epithelium of molars.
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ABSTRACT: The 2010 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Chicago, Illinois, in advance of the scientific symposium sponsored jointly by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP). The goal of the annual NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers' presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for voting or discussion. Some topics covered during the symposium included a comparison of rat and mouse hepatocholangiocarcinoma, a comparison of cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma in rats, a mixed pancreatic neoplasm with acinar and islet cell components, an unusual preputial gland tumor, renal hyaline glomerulopathy in rats and mice, eosinophilic substance in the nasal septum of mice, INHAND nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the CNS/PNS, retinal gliosis in a rat, fibroadnexal hamartoma in rats, intramural plaque in a mouse, a treatment-related chloracne-like lesion in mice, and an overview of mouse ovarian tumors.Toxicologic Pathology 12/2010; 39(1):240-66. DOI:10.1177/0192623310391680 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gingival lesions of squamous hyperplasia, cystic keratinizing hyperplasia (CKH), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be induced in rats treated by chronic gavage with 10-100 mg/kg 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene. We evaluated gingival squamous hyperplasia (GSH), CKH, and SCC for the immunohistochemical pattern of expression of carcinogenesis-associated markers. The 3 types of lesions and controls were stained with proliferation markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] and cyclin-D1), tumor-suppressor markers (β-catenin and mammary serine protease inhibitor [maspin]) and stroma-related markers (α-smooth muscle actin [SMA] and osteonectin/SPARC). The lesions had common immunohistochemical characteristics that differed in their expression patterns among the various diagnoses. PCNA and cyclin-D1 expression was higher in GSH, CKH, and SCC than in controls. The normal membranous expression of β-catenin was lower in GSH, and almost absent in CKH and SCC. Maspin expression was similar in GSH and controls, whereas both CKH and SCC showed decreased expression. SMA and/or osteonectin/SPARC were seen in stromal cells in CKH and SCC. Collectively, there appears to be a progression from hyperplastic and cystic lesions toward malignancy based on the morphological changes, supported by the expression of carcinogenesis-associated proteins. The exact sequence of events leading to SCC remains to be defined in a time-dependent manner.Toxicologic Pathology 02/2012; 40(4):577-92. DOI:10.1177/0192623311436185 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND During the Vietnam War, US and allied military sprayed approximately 77 million liters of tactical herbicides including Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined the association between Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence among Korean veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.METHODS An Agent Orange exposure index, based on the proximity of the veteran's military unit to the area that was sprayed with Agent Orange, was developed using a geographic information system-based model. Cancer incidence was followed for 180,251 Vietnam veterans from 1992 through 2003.RESULTSAfter adjustment for age and military rank, high exposure to Agent Orange was found to significantly increase the risk of all cancers combined (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.08). Risks for cancers of the mouth (aHR, 2.54), salivary glands (aHR, 6.96), stomach (aHR, 1.14), and small intestine (aHR, 2.30) were found to be significantly higher in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Risks for cancers of all sites combined (aHR, 1.02) and for cancers of the salivary glands (aHR, 1.47), stomach (aHR, 1.03), small intestine (aHR, 1.24), and liver (aHR, 1.02) were elevated with a 1-unit increase in the exposure index.CONCLUSIONS Exposure to Agent Orange several decades earlier may increase the risk of cancers in all sites combined, as well as several specific cancers, among Korean veterans of the Vietnam War, including some cancers that were not found to be clearly associated with exposure to Agent Orange in previous cohort studies primarily based on Western populations. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.Cancer 08/2014; DOI:10.1002/cncr.28961 · 5.20 Impact Factor