Disseminated tuberculosis following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematological diseases.
ABSTRACT Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) recipients are prone to infections. The incidences of mycobacterial infections after allo-SCT in several case series vary from less than 0.1-5.5%. However, no study has been published on tuberculosis following unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 113 adult patients with a median age of 54 years who underwent reduced-intensity UCBT (RI-UCBT) at Toranomon Hospital from March 2002 to May 2004. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections were diagnosed in three patients (2.7%), of these two patients developed primary infection and one patient developed reactivation of latent tuberculosis. The interval between RI-UCBT and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was 34, 41 and 61 days. All the patients had disseminated disease at diagnosis. Histological examination showed the lack of granuloma in caseous necrosis. Combination antituberculous treatments showed limited efficacy, and two patients died immediately after diagnosis. M. tuberculosis caused life-threatening illness, rapidly progressing in RI-UCBT recipients. The lack of granuloma in caseous necrosis suggests the impaired T-cell function in early post transplant phase of RI-UCBT. We should consider M. tuberculosis in the differential diagnoses of fever of unknown source after RI-UCBT.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Shigeo Hara, Aug 07, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections are uncommon in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These infections are 10-40 times commoner in recipients of stem cell transplantation than in the general population but they are 10 times less in stem cell transplantation recipients compared to solid organ transplant recipients. The incidence of M. tuberculosis infections in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation ranges between <1 and 16% and varies considerably according to the type of transplant and the geographical location. Approximately 80% of M. tuberculosis infections in stem cell transplant recipients have been reported in patients receiving allografts. Several risk factors predispose to M. tuberculosis infections in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and these are related to the underlying medical condition and its treatment, the pre-transplant conditioning therapies in addition to the transplant procedure and its own complications. These infections can develop as early as day 11 and as late as day 3337 post-transplant. The course may become rapidly progressive and the patient may develop life-threatening complications. The diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infections in stem cell transplant recipients is usually made on clinical grounds, cultures obtained from clinical specimens, tissues biopsies in addition to serology and molecular tests. Unfortunately, a definitive diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infections in these patients may occasionally be difficult to be established. However, M. tuberculosis infections in transplant recipients usually respond well to treatment with anti-tuberculosis agents provided the diagnosis is made early. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in recipients of stem cell transplantation living in endemic areas and presenting with compatible clinical and radiological manifestations. High mortality rates are associated with infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains, miliary or disseminated infections, and delayed initiation of therapy. In recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, isoniazid prophylaxis has specific indications and bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination is contraindicated as it may lead to disseminated infection. The finding that M. tuberculosis may maintain long-term intracellular viability in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells complicates the development of effective vaccines and strategies to eliminate tuberculosis. However, the introduction of linezolid, cellular immunotherapy, and immunomodulation in addition to autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation will ultimately have a positive impact on the overall management of infections caused by M. tuberculosis.Frontiers in Oncology 08/2014; 4:231. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00231
Hemodialysis - Different Aspects, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-315-6
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ABSTRACT: Literature on tuberculosis (TB) occurring in recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) is scanty even in countries where TB is common. Most reports of TB in HSCT patients were from ASIA, in fact the TB incidence ranging from 0.0014 (USA) to 16% (Pakistan). There are few reports of TB diagnosis during the first two weeks after HSCT; most of cases described in the literature occurred after 90 days of HSCT, and the lung was the organ most involved. The mortality ranged from 0 to 50% and is higher in allogeneic HSCT than in autologous. There is no consensus regarding the screening with tuberculin skin test or QuantiFERON-TB gold, primary prophylaxis for latent TB, and whether the epidemiologic query should be emphasized in developing countries with high prevalence of TB.Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 5(1):e2013061. DOI:10.4084/MJHID.2013.061