Two cases of Allgrove syndrome with mutations in the AAAS gene.
ABSTRACT Allgrove syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of adrenal insufficiency, achalasia and alacrima. This syndrome, also known as triple A syndrome, is now known to be caused by mutations in the AAAS gene. In the present study, we report two new patients of Allgrove syndrome with mutations in the AAAS gene. Patient 1 was a 22-year-old Japanese woman, born to consanguineous parents. She was confirmed to have adrenal insufficiency at the age of 3 years and 6 months. She developed alacrima and bilateral optic nerve atrophy at the age of 8 years. She had been noticed to have dysphagia. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as having Allgrove syndrome. Mutation analysis revealed a novel homozygous point mutation in exon 7 of her AAAS gene, changing codon 194 encoding Arg (CGA) to a stop codon (TGA) (R194X). Patient 2 was a 7-year-old Japanese boy, born to consanguineous parents. At the age of 1 year, he was noticed to be unable to produce tears. He was confirmed to have adrenal insufficiency, mental retardation and spastic diplegia at the age of 5 years and 4 months. He was tentatively diagnosed as having Allgrove syndrome, although he has never complained of dysphasia. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous point mutation in exon 4 of his AAAS gene, changing codon 119 encoding Arg (CGA) to a stop codon (TGA) (R119X). Both of the R119X and R194X mutations are predicted to result in truncated and non-functioning ALADIN proteins, and thus the diagnosis of Allgrove syndrome was confirmed by the mutation analyses. These findings indicate that there exist significant clinical variability and mutational heterogeneities in Japanese patients with this syndrome.
Article: Triple a syndrome in Japan.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Triple A syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by esophageal achalasia, alacrima, and adrenal insufficiency, as well as involvement of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems. This disease mimics amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in some patients. The causative gene encodes ALADIN, a nuclear pore complex (NPC) component. Only 5 patients have been reported in Japan. We conducted the first nationwide survey of triple A syndrome. Identified mutants were expressed as GFP-fusion proteins in cultured cells. Two new patients were identified, and 1 had a novel mutation (p.Ser182fsX19). All mutant proteins tested were mislocalized from NPC to cytoplasm. The most consistent neurological manifestation of triple A syndrome in Japanese patients was progressive bulbospinal muscular atrophy with both upper and lower motor neuron involvement, which mimicked motor neuron disease, similar to that seen in patients in Western countries. The identification of the new patients suggests that more cases are undiagnosed in Japan. Muscle Nerve, 2013.Muscle & Nerve 01/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report on a manifold advanced dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy (DHM) configuration with a real-time measurement capability. The proposed configuration based on a polarizing separation scheme can be used for microscopic imaging polarimetry as well as dual wavelength digital holographic microscopy. In this paper, we show the feasibility of the proposed scheme by conducting the dual wavelength DHM experiments on a sample with a step height of 1.34μm nominally. An averaging technique is treated and three-dimensional (3D) topographic measurements are presented. The results obtained by the proposed polarization separation based single shot DHM approach shows it can provide a real time solution for measuring 3D profile information of small objects with excellent accuracy.Optics Communications 02/2012; · 1.54 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Triple-A or Allgrove syndrome is a rare multisystem disease classically associated with esophageal achalasia, adrenal insufficiency and alacrima. Here, we describe the poorly understood neurological characteristics often associated with this condition, through the clinical and electrophysiological analysis of eight patients. All patients were genetically confirmed and had a mutation in the ALADIN gene. They all displayed a classical picture of Triple-A syndrome: all suffered from achalasia and alacrima and half of them from adrenal insufficiency. However, all harbored a neurological picture characterized by a recognizable pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Other neurological features included cognitive deficits, pyramidal syndrome, cerebellar dysfunction, dysautonomia, neuro-ophthalmological signs and bulbar and facial symptoms. This neurological picture was prominent in all patients and misled the initial diagnosis in six of them, which had a late onset. We then review the previous neurological reports of this disease, to improve the understanding of this rare condition. Diagnosis of late-onset Triple-A syndrome is difficult when the clinical picture is mainly neurological and when endocrine or gastrointestinal signs are minor. The characteristics of the peripheral neuropathy, among other neurological signs, can be of help.Journal of Neurology 06/2011; 259(1):39-46. · 3.84 Impact Factor