Physiographic and entomologic risk factors of malaria in Assam, India.
ABSTRACT Fever surveys were conducted in several districts of the Indian state of Assam to ascertain the prevalence of malaria in relation to vector abundance, entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs), and geographic location of human settlements. Anopheles minimus were incriminated, but their relative abundance and biting rates varied among districts, and no significant correlation was observed between these two indicators (r = 0.43, P = 0.34). Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant parasite species except in two districts where P. vivax was the majority parasite. The EIRs per person/night were 0.46-0.71 in P. falciparum-predominant areas and 0.12 in the district where P. vivax predominated. The correlation of percentage of fever cases positive for malaria infection in each district with the corresponding EIR was not significant (r = 0.6, P = 0.21). Malaria cases were detected in all months of the year but peaked during May-June, which corresponded to the months of heavy rainfall. These were also the months with highest incidence of infection with P. falciparum. Malaria cases were observed in all age groups of both sexes, and there was clustering of cases in villages near the vector-breeding habitat (perennial seepage streams), and foothill villages. However, malaria incidences were consistently lower in villages within 5 km of the nearest health care facility, which were in town areas. The data presented are indicative of low-to-moderate levels of malaria transmission by An. minimus, and would be of value for developing future intervention strategies.
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ABSTRACT: With dwindling malaria cases in Bhutan in recent years, the government of Bhutan has made plans for malaria elimination by 2016. This study aimed to determine coverage, use and ownership of LLINs, as well as the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at a single time-point, in four sub-districts of Bhutan.Malaria Journal 09/2014; 13(1):352. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence.Infectious diseases of poverty. 01/2014; 3:19.
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ABSTRACT: Anopheles annularis is one of the major vectors of malaria in Odisha, India. The present study was undertaken to determine the vectorial capacity and assess the genetic diversity of An. annularis collected from different endemic regions of Odisha. Mosquitoes were collected from thirteen endemic districts using standard entomological collection methods from 2009-2011. Sibling species of An. annularis were identified by PCR-RFLP and sequencing of D3 region of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite rate and human blood fed percentage (HBF) were estimated by multiplex PCR using Pf and human specific primers. Genetic diversity of An. annularis was estimated by ISSR markers. Out of 1647 An. annularis collected, 1353 (82.15%) were collected by mechanical aspirators and 294 (17.85%) by light trap. 49 (2.97%) were positive for human blood and 18 (1.09%) were positive for Pf sporozoite. PCR-RFLP and sequencing analyses detected only An annularis A in the study areas. Overall genetic differentiation among An. annularis populations was moderate (FST=0.048) and showed significant correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance (r=0.882; P<0.05). Angul population proved to be genetically unique and was highly divergent FST>0.110) from other populations, suggesting low gene flow between them. The study indicated that only An. annularis A was found in Odisha with potential vectorial capacity that can play a major role in malaria transmission. ISSR markers proved to be useful molecular tools to evaluate genetic variability in An. annularis populations.Acta tropica 05/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor