c-Fos immunohistochemical mapping of the audiogenic seizure network and tonotopic neuronal hyperexcitability in the inferior colliculus of the Frings mouse.
ABSTRACT The Frings mouse is a model of audiogenic seizure (AGS) susceptibility. The genetic locus responsible for the AGS phenotype in the Frings mouse has been named monogenic audiogenic seizure-susceptible (MASS1). MASS1 is unique in that it is one of only two identified seizure loci that are not associated with an ion channel mutation. Furthermore, Frings mice display a robust AGS phenotype demonstrating very high and prolonged susceptibility to sound-induced tonic extension seizures. The purpose of this investigation was to use c-Fos immunohistochemistry to map the brain structures involved in the Frings AGS and to examine neuronal hyperexcitability in the inferior colliculus, the brain structure that is recognized as the site of AGS initiation. AGS mapping revealed that intense seizure-induced neuronal activation was mostly limited to structures involved in a brainstem seizure network, including the external and dorsal nuclei of the inferior colliculus, as observed in other AGS rodents. Acoustically induced c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to sub-AGS threshold tone stimulations displayed a greater level of neuronal activation in AGS-susceptible Frings, DBA/2J and noise-primed C57BL/6J mice compared to AGS-resistant C57BL/6J and CF1 mice. The AGS-susceptible mice also displayed c-Fos immunoreactivity that was more focused within the tonotopic response domain of the inferior colliculus compared to AGS-resistant mice. Furthermore, Frings mice displayed significantly greater tonotopic hyper-responsiveness compared to other AGS-susceptible mice.
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ABSTRACT: Growing evidence has been found to suggest that early development of the central auditory system is dependent on acoustic stimuli. Peripheral damage caused by noise exposure and ototoxic drugs can induce functional and anatomical changes along the auditory pathways. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a unique structure in the auditory system located between the primary auditory nuclei of the brainstem and the thalamus. Damage to the IC inhibitory circuitry may affect central auditory processing and sound perception. Here, we review some of the striking electrophysiological changes in the IC that occur after noise exposure and ototoxic drug treatment. A common occurrence that emerges in the IC after peripheral damage is hyperexcitability of sound-evoked response. The hyperexcitability of the IC is likely related with reduced inhibitory response that requires normal peripheral inputs. Early age hearing loss can result in a long lasting increased susceptibility to audiogenic seizure which is related to hyperactivity in the IC evoked by loud sounds. Our studies suggest that hearing loss can cause increased IC neuron responsiveness which may be related to tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizure.
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ABSTRACT: Significant differences in seizure characteristics between inbred mouse strains highlight the importance of genetic predisposition to epilepsy. Here, we examined the genetic differences between the seizure-resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mouse strain and the seizure-susceptible DBA/2J (D2) strain in the phospho-Erk and Fos pathways to examine seizure-induced neuronal activity to uncover potential mechanistic correlates to these disparate seizure responsivities. Expression of neural activity markers was examined following 1, 5, or 8 seizures, or after 8 seizures, a 28 day rest period, and a final flurothyl rechallenge. Two brain regions, the hippocampus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), had significantly different Fos expression profiles following seizures. Fos expression was highly robust in B6 hippocampus following one seizure and remained elevated following multiple seizures. Conversely, there was an absence of Fos (and phospho-Erk) expression in D2 hippocampus following one generalized seizure that increased with multiple seizures. This lack of Fos expression occurred despite intracranial electroencephalographic recordings indicating that the D2 hippocampus propagated ictal discharge during the first flurothyl seizure suggesting a dissociation of seizure discharge from Fos and phospho-Erk expression. Global transcriptional analysis confirmed a dysregulation of the c-fos pathway in D2 mice following 1 seizure. Moreover, global analysis of RNA expression differences between B6 and D2 hippocampus revealed a unique pattern of transcripts that were co-regulated with Fos in D2 hippocampus following 1 seizure. These expression differences could, in part, account for D2's seizure susceptibility phenotype. Following 8 seizures, a 28 day rest period, and a final flurothyl rechallenge, ∼85% of B6 mice develop a more complex seizure phenotype consisting of a clonic-forebrain seizure that uninterruptedly progresses into a brainstem seizure. This seizure phenotype in B6 mice is highly correlated with bilateral Fos expression in the VMH and was not observed in D2 mice, which always express clonic-forebrain seizures upon flurothyl retest. Overall, these results illustrate specific differences in protein and RNA expression in different inbred strains following seizures that precede the reorganizational events that affect seizure susceptibility and changes in seizure semiology over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Epilepsy Research 01/2015; 109C:183-196. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.11.009 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The inferior colliculus (IC) plays an important role in the normal processing of the acoustic message and is also involved in the filtering of acoustic stimuli of aversive nature. The neural substrate of the IC can also influence haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Considering that (i) paradoxical kinesia, observed in some parkinsonian patients, seems to be dependent of their emotional state and (ii) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents an alternative therapeutic route for the relief of parkinsonian symptoms, the present study investigated the consequence of DBS at the IC on the catalepsy induced by haloperidol in rats. Additionally, we investigated if DBS of the IC can elicit motor responses in anesthetized rats and whether DBS elicits distinct neural firing patterns of activity at the dorsal cortex (DCIC) or central nucleus (CNIC) of the IC. A significant reduction of the catalepsy response was seen in rats previously given haloperidol and receiving DBS at the IC. In addition, electrical stimulation to the ventral part of the CNIC induced immediate motor responses in anesthetized rats. The neuronal spontaneous activity was higher at the ventral part of the CNIC than the dorsal part. DBS to the ventral part but not to the dorsal part of the CNIC increased the spike rate at neurons a few hundred microns away from the stimulation site. It is possible that the IC plays a role in the sensorimotor gating activated by emotional stimuli, and that DBS at the IC can be a promising new animal model to study paradoxical kinesia in rats.Behavioural Brain Research 11/2014; 279. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.10.035 · 3.39 Impact Factor