c-Fos immunohistochemical mapping of the audiogenic seizure network and tonotopic neuronal hyperexcitability in the inferior colliculus of the Frings mouse.
ABSTRACT The Frings mouse is a model of audiogenic seizure (AGS) susceptibility. The genetic locus responsible for the AGS phenotype in the Frings mouse has been named monogenic audiogenic seizure-susceptible (MASS1). MASS1 is unique in that it is one of only two identified seizure loci that are not associated with an ion channel mutation. Furthermore, Frings mice display a robust AGS phenotype demonstrating very high and prolonged susceptibility to sound-induced tonic extension seizures. The purpose of this investigation was to use c-Fos immunohistochemistry to map the brain structures involved in the Frings AGS and to examine neuronal hyperexcitability in the inferior colliculus, the brain structure that is recognized as the site of AGS initiation. AGS mapping revealed that intense seizure-induced neuronal activation was mostly limited to structures involved in a brainstem seizure network, including the external and dorsal nuclei of the inferior colliculus, as observed in other AGS rodents. Acoustically induced c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to sub-AGS threshold tone stimulations displayed a greater level of neuronal activation in AGS-susceptible Frings, DBA/2J and noise-primed C57BL/6J mice compared to AGS-resistant C57BL/6J and CF1 mice. The AGS-susceptible mice also displayed c-Fos immunoreactivity that was more focused within the tonotopic response domain of the inferior colliculus compared to AGS-resistant mice. Furthermore, Frings mice displayed significantly greater tonotopic hyper-responsiveness compared to other AGS-susceptible mice.
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ABSTRACT: Tinnitus and hyperacusis, commonly seen in adults, are also reported in children. Although clinical studies found children with tinnitus and hyperacusis often suffered from recurrent otitis media, there is no direct study on how temporary hearing loss in the early age affects the sound loudness perception. In this study, sound loudness changes in rats affected by perforation of the tympanic membranes (TM) have been studied using an operant conditioning based behavioral task. We detected significant increases of sound loudness and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rats with bilateral TM damage at postnatal 16 days. As increase to sound sensitivity is commonly seen in hyperacusis and tinnitus patients, these results suggest that early age hearing loss is a high risk factor to induce tinnitus and hyperacusis in children. In the TM damaged rats, we also detected a reduced expression of GABA receptor δ and α6 subunits in the inferior colliculus (IC) compared to the controls. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 7-14 days), an anti-seizure drug that inhibits the catabolism of GABA, not only blocked AGS, but also significantly attenuated the loudness response. Administration of vigabatrin following the early age TM damage could even prevent rats from developing AGS. These results suggest that TM damage at an early age may cause a permanent reduction of GABA tonic inhibition which is critical towards the maintenance of normal loudness processing of the IC. Increasing GABA concentration during the critical period may alleviate the impairment in the brain induced by early age hearing loss.Hearing research 04/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: VLGR1 (very large G protein-coupled receptor 1), also known as MASS1 (monogenic audiogenic seizure susceptible 1), is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that contains a large extracellular N terminus with 35 calcium-binding domains. A truncating mutation in the Mass1 gene causes autosomal recessive, sound-induced seizures in the Frings mouse. However, the function of MASS1 and the mechanism underlying Frings mouse epilepsy are not known. Here, we found that MASS1 protein is enriched in the myelinated regions of the superior and inferior colliculi, critical areas for the initiation and propagation of audiogenic seizures. Using a panel of myelin antibodies, we discovered that myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) expression is dramatically decreased in Frings mice. MASS1 inhibits the ubiquitylation of MAG, thus enhancing the stability of this protein, and the calcium-binding domains of MASS1 are essential for this regulation. Furthermore, MASS1 interacts with Gαs/Gαq and activates PKA and PKC in response to extracellular calcium. Suppression of signaling by MASS1 RNAi or a specific inhibitor abrogates MAG up-regulation. We postulate that MASS1 senses extracellular calcium and activates cytosolic PKA/PKC pathways to regulate myelination by means of MAG protein stability in myelin-forming cells of the auditory pathway. Further work is required to determine whether MAG dysregulation is a cause or consequence of audiogenic epilepsy and whether there are other pathways regulated by MASS1.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a multifactorial disorder characterized by a decline in peripheral and central auditory function. Here, we examined synaptic transmission in DBA/2 mice, which carry the AHL8 gene, at the identifiable glutamatergic synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), a nucleus in the superior olivary complex critical for acoustic timing. Mice exhibited raised auditory brainstem thresholds by P14, soon after hearing onset. Excitatory postsynaptic currents were prolonged, however, postsynaptic excitability was normal. By P18, high-frequency hearing loss was evident. Coincident with the onset of hearing loss, MNTB principal neurons displayed changes in intrinsic firing properties. These results suggest that changes in transmission in the superior olivary complex are associated with early onset hearing loss.Neuroscience Letters 12/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor